NASM FNS Chapter 5 – Lipids

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 5 of the NASM FNS

Adipocytes ~ Fat cells

Adipose Tissue ~ Body fat tissue

Alpha-Linolenic Acid ~ a vital omega-3 fatty acid (PUFA) that contains eighteen carbon atoms and three carbon-carbon double bonds (18:3)

Chain Length ~ the number of carbons that a fatty acid tail contains. Foods contain fatty acids with chain lengths of four to twenty-four carbons, and most have an even number of carbons

Cholesterol ~ A waxy lipid (sterol) whose chemical structure contains multiple hydrocarbon rings

Choline ~ A nitrogen-containing compound that’s a part of phosphatidylcholine, a type of phospholipid. choline is additionally a part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The body synthesizes choline from the essential amino acid methionine

Chylomicron ~ a large lipoprotein particle synthesized in intestinal cells following the absorption of dietary fats. A chylomicron has a central core of triglycerides and cholesterol enclosed by phospholipids and proteins

Cis fatty acid ~ Unsaturated fatty acid in which the hydrogens encompassing a double a are both on the identical side of the carbon chain, causing a bend within the chain. Most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids are cis fatty acids

Conjugated linolic acid ~ A polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the position of the double bonds has moved, so one bond alternates with 2 double bonds

Desaturation ~ Insertion of double bonds into fatty acids to convert them into new fatty acids

Diglycerides ~ Molecules composed of glycerol combined with 2 fatty acids

Eicosanoids ~ a class of hormone-like substances synthesized in the body from long-chain fatty acids

Elongation ~ Addition of carbon atoms to fatty acids to elongate them into new fatty acids

Essential Fatty Acids ~ The fatty acids that the body requires but cannot synthesize, and that should be obtained from the diet.

Ester ~ A chemical combination of an organic acid (e.g., fatty acids) and an alcohol. once hydrogen from the alcohol combines with the acid’s hydrogen and oxygen, water is discharged and an ester linkage is created. A triglyceride is an ester of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol backbone

Esterification ~ A condensation reaction within which an organic acid (e.g., fatty acids) combines with an alcohol with the loss of water, making an ester bond

Fat Replacers ~ Compounds that imitate the functional and sensory properties of fats, however, contain less bioavailable energy than fats

Fatty Acids ~ Compounds containing a protracted hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end and a methyl group (CH3) at the opposing end

Glycerol ~ an alcohol that contains 3 carbon atoms, each of which has an attached hydroxyl (-OH). It forms the backbone of mono-, di-, and triglycerides

High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) ~ The blood lipoproteins that contain high levels of protein and low levels of triglycerides. Synthesized primarily within the liver and small intestine, HDL picks up cholesterol discharged from dying cells and other sources and transfers it to other lipoproteins

Hydrogenation ~ A chemical reaction during which hydrogen atoms are added to carbon-carbon double bonds, changing them to single bonds. hydrogenation of monosaturated and unsaturated fatty acids reduces the amount of double bonds the contain, thereby making them more saturated

Hydrophilic ~ readily interacting with water (literally, “water-loving”). deliquescent compounds are polar and soluble in water

Hydrophobic ~ Insoluble in water

Lipoprotein ~ Complexes that transport lipids within the human blood. They comprise a central core of triglycerides and sterol encircled by a shell composed of proteins and phospholipids. the various forms of lipoproteins differ in size, composition, and density

Lipoprotein lipase ~ the main accelerator liable for three hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides

Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL) ~ The cholesterol-rich lipoproteins / adipoproteins that result from the bMicelles ~ Small emulsified fat packets which can enter enterocytes. The complexes are composed of surfactant molecules orientated with their hydrophobic half facing inward and their hydrophilic half facing outward toward the encompassing aqueous surroundings.Breakdown and removal of triglycerides from intermediate-density lipoprotein within the blood

Monoglycerides ~ Molecules composed of glycerol combined with one fatty

Monounsaturated fatty acid ~ A lipid in which the carbon chain contains one double bond (either cis or trans)

Nonessential Fatty Acids ~ The fatty acids that your body will build once they are required. it’s not necessary to consume them in the diet

Omega-3 Fatty Acids ~ Any unsaturated fatty acyl in which the primary double bond starting from the methyl group (CH3) end of the molecule lies between the third and fourth carbon atoms

Omega-6 fatty acid ~ Any unsaturated fatty acyl in which the primary double bond starting from the methyl group (CH3) end of the molecule lies between the sixth and seventh carbon atoms

Omega-9 fatty acid ~ Any unsaturated fatty acyl in which the primary double bond starting from the methyl group (CH3) end of the molecule lies between the ninth and tenth carbon atoms

Oxidation ~ oxygen attaches to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Rancid fats are oxidized fats

Phosphate group ~ A chemical functional group (-PÒ) on a bigger molecule where the phosphate atom is single-bonded to each of the four oxygens, and also the other bond of 1 of the oxygens is connected to the remainder of the molecule. usually, hydrogen atoms are connected to the oxygens. typically there are double bonds between the phosphate and an oxygen atom

Phytosterols ~ Sterols found in plants. Phytosterols are poorly absorbed by humans and scale back enteric absorption of sterol. they have been used as a sterol-lowering food ingredient

Polyunsaturated fatty acyl ~ A fatty acid molecule in which the carbon chain contains 2 or more than a few double bonds

Saturated Fatty Acids ~ A fatty acyl fully filled by protons with all carbons within the chain coupled by single bonds

Squalene ~ A cholesterin precursor found in whale liver and plants

Sterols ~ A class of lipids that has cholesterol. Sterols are hydrocarbons with 3 rings in their structures

Subcutaneous Fat ~ Fat stores beneath the skin

Trans Fatty Acids ~ Unsaturated fatty acids in which the hydrogens encompassing a double bond are on opposite sides of the carbon chain. This straightens the chain, and therefore the fatty acid becomes more solid

Triglycerides ~ Fats composed of 3 fatty acyl chains joined to a glycerol molecule

Unsaturated fatty acid ~ A fatty acyl chain in which the carbon chain contains one or a lot of double bonds

Very low-density Lipoproteins (VLDL) ~ The triglyceride-rich lipoproteins created in the liver. Very Low-Density Lipoprotein enters the blood and is gradually acted upon by lipoprotein lipase, releasing triacylglycerides to body cells

Visceral Fat ~ Fat stores that cushion body organs