If you have not signed up for the NASM FNS yet, you can do so here to save 20%.

If you are unsure which nutrition certification is right for you, I recommend that you take the quiz or check out my article on the top nutrition certifications. This is especially true because the FNS is slightly out of date.

NASM FNS Chapter 4 - Carbohydrates 6
NASM FNS Chapter 4 - Carbohydrates 7

Important definitions to memorize for chapter 4 of the NASM FNS

Acesulfame K ~ is a synthetic sweetener that’s two hundred times sweeter than common table sugar (sucrose). As a result, it is not digestible and absorbed by the body; acesulfame contributes no calories to the diet and yields no energy once consumed

Alpha (a) Bonds ~ Chemical bonds linking two monosaccharides (glycosidic bonds) which will be broken by human enteric enzymes, expelling the individual monosaccharides. Both sucrose and maltose contain alpha bonds

Amylopectin ~ A branched-chain carbohydrate composed of D-glucose units

Amylose ~ A straight-chain carbohydrate composed of D-glucose units

Aspartame ~ is a synthetic sweetener with two amino acids and methyl alcohol.

Beta (b) Bonds ~ Chemical bonds linking 2 monosaccharides (glycosidic bonds) that human enteric enzymes can’t break. The polysaccharide cellulose contains beta bonds.

B-Glucans ~ useful fiber, consisting of branched carbohydrate chains of glucose monomers, that helps lower blood cholesterol levels. Found in barley and oats

Blood Glucose Levels ~ the quantity of glucose within the blood at any given time. Additionally, called blood sugar levels.

Bran ~ The layers of protective coating around the grain kernel that are very rich in dietary fiber and nutrients

Cellulose ~ A straight-chained carbohydrate composed of thousands of glucose units joined by beta bonds. It is indigestible by humans and a part of dietary fiber.

Chitin ~ A long-chain structural polysaccharide of slightly changed glucose. Found within the hard exterior skeletons of insects, crustaceans, and different invertebrates, it also occurs within fungi’s cell walls.

Chitosan ~ carbohydrate polysaccharide derived from chitin

Complex Carbohydrates ~ Chains of over 2 monosaccharides. could also be oligosaccharides or polysaccharides

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Condensation ~ In chemistry, a reaction during which a chemical bond is created between 2 molecules by the removal of a water molecule

Dental Caries ~ Destruction of the enamel surface of teeth caused by acids ensuing from the microbial breakdown of sugars in the mouth

Diabetes Mellitus ~ A chronic illness in which blood sugar uptake by body cells is impaired, leading to high glucose levels within the blood and excrement. A decreased pancreatic release of insulin causes type 1. In type 2, target cells (e.g., fat and muscle cells) lose the ability to respond ordinarily to insulin.

Dietary Fiber ~ Carbohydrates and lignins that are naturally in plants and are nondigestible; that is, they’re not digested and absorbed within the human bowel

Disaccharides ~ Carbohydrates composed of 2 monosaccharide units coupled by a glycosidic bond. They include sucrose (common table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and malt sugar.

Endosperm ~ the biggest, middle portion of a grain kernel. The endosperm is high in starch to feed the growing plant embryo.

Epinephrine ~ A hormone discharged in response to stress or abrupt danger, epinephrine raises blood sugar levels to prepare the body for “fight or flight.” additionally known as adrenaline.

Fructose ~ a typical monosaccharide containing six carbons that are naturally present in honey and lots of fruits; often supplemented to foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. Additionally called levulose or fructose.

Functional Fiber ~ Isolated indigestible carbohydrates, together with some factory-made carbohydrates that have beneficial effects on humans

Galactose ~ A monosaccharide containing six carbons that will be converted into glucose within the body. In foods and living systems, galactose is typically joined with different monosaccharides.

Germ ~ The innermost part of a grain, situated at the kernel’s base, will grow into a brand-new plant. The germ is rich in protein, oils, vitamins, and minerals.

Glucagon ~ made by alpha cells within the pancreas, this polypeptide hormone promotes the breakdown of liver glycogen to free glucose, thereby increasing blood glucose. -Glucagon secretion is stimulated by low blood sugar levels and by growth hormone

Glucose ~ a common simple sugar containing six carbons that are present in the blood; additionally referred to as dextrose and blood sugar. It is a part of the disaccharides sucrose, lactose, and malt sugar and numerous complex carbohydrates.

Glycemic Index ~ A measure of the impact of food on blood sugar levels. It is the quantitative relation of the blood sugar value after feeding the same amount of white bread or glucose.

Glycogen ~ an awfully large, highly branched polysaccharide composed of multiple glucose units. Generally known as animal starch, glycogen is animals’ primary glucose storage form.

Gums ~ Dietary fibers that contain galactose and other monosaccharides found between plant cell walls

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Hemicelluloses ~ a set of large polysaccharides in dietary fiber that are fermented more easily than a polysaccharide such as cellulose

Husk ~ The uneatable covering of a grain kernel. Additionally known as the chaff

Insulin ~ synthesized by beta cells within the pancreas, this peptide hormone stimulates blood sugar uptake into muscle and fat cells, the synthesis of glycogen within the liver, and various other processes.

Ketone Bodies ~ Molecules fashioned when insufficient – carbohydrate is consumed to metabolize fat completely. The formation of ketone bodies is promoted by very low-glucose levels and high acyl CoA levels among cells. Acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate are typically improperly known as ketone.

Ketosis ~ Abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids

Lactose ~ A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, additionally known as milk sugar. As a result, it’s the main sugar in milk and dairy product.

Lignins ~ Insoluble fibers composed of multi-ring alcohol units that represent the sole noncarbohydrate element of a dietary fiber

Maltose ~ A oligosaccharide composed of 2 glucose molecules;m was generally known as maltose. Malt sugar rarely is present naturally in foods; however, it is synthesized whenever long starch molecules break down.

Monosaccharides ~ Any sugars that aren’t broken down throughout digestion and have the overall formula CnH2nOn, where n=3 to 7. The common monosaccharides glucose, fructose, and galactose all have six carbon atoms (n=6)

Mucilages ~ gelatinlike (jellylike) soluble fibers containing galactose, mannose, and different monosaccharides; found in an alga

Neotame ~ synthetic sweeteners kind of like aspartame, however, one that’s sweeter and doesn’t need a warning label for phenylketonuria

Nonnutritive Sweeteners ~ Substances that impart sweetness to foods, however, provide very little or no energy to the body; additionally known as artificial or alternative sweeteners. They typically include acesulfame, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose.

Oligosaccharides ~ Short saccharide chains composed of three to ten sugar molecules

Pancreatic amylase ~ Starch-digesting catalyst secreted by the pancreas

Pectins ~ a kind of dietary fiber found in fruits

Pentoses ~ Sugar molecules containing 5 carbon atoms

Phenylketonuria (PKU) ~ is an inherited disease caused by scarcity or deficiency of the protein catalyst that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine

Sugar Alcohols ~ Compounds formed from monosaccharides by substituting a proton with hydroxyl (-OH); normally used as nutrient sweeteners. additionally known as polyols

Polysaccharides ~ Long saccharide chains composed of more than ten sugar molecules. Polysaccharides may be straight or branched

Refined Sweeteners ~ Composed of monosaccharides and disaccharides that have been extracted and processed from other types of foods

Resistant Starch ~ A starch that’s not digestible

Saccharin ~ is a synthetic sweetener that tastes around three hundred to 700 times sweeter than table sugar.

Simple Carbohydrates ~ Sugars composed of one sugar molecule (a monosaccharide) or 2 joined sugar molecules (a disaccharide).

Starch ~ is the key storage type of sugar in plants; starch consists of long chains of glucose molecules in a straight (amylose) or branching (amylopectin) arrangement.

Stevioside ~ A dietary supplement not approved to be used as a sweetener that’s extracted and refined from Stevia rebaudiana leaves.

Sucralose ~ is a synthetic sweetener made up of sucrose; it was approved to be used in the united states in 1998 and has been utilized in Canada since 1992. Sucralose is non-nutritive and around 600 times sweeter than sugar.

Sucrose ~ A oligosaccharide composed of 1 molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose joined along. Additionally referred to as table sugar.

Sugar Alcohols ~ Compounds formed from monosaccharides by substituting a proton with hydroxyl (-OH); normally used as nutrient sweeteners. Additionally known as polyols.

Total Fiber ~ The added sum of dietary fiber and useful fiber.

Trehalose ~ A oligosaccharide of 2 sugar molecules, however, with a linkage completely different from malt sugar. Used as an artificial additive and sweetener.

Tyler Read - Certified Personal Trainer with PTPioneer

Tyler Read


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