NASM FNS Chapter 4 – Carbohydrates

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 4 of the NASM FNS

Acesulfame K ~ a synthetic sweetener that’s two hundred times sweeter than common table sugar (sucrose). as a result of it is not digestible and absorbed by the body, acesulfame contributes no calories to the diet and yields no energy once consumed

Alpha (a) Bonds ~ Chemical bonds linking two monosaccharides (glycosidic bonds) which will be broken by human enteric enzymes, expelling the individual monosaccharides. Both sucrose and maltose contain alpha bonds

Amylopectin ~ A branched-chain carbohydrate composed of D-glucose units

Amylose ~ A straight-chain carbohydrate composed of D-glucose units

Aspartame ~ a synthetic sweetener composed of two amino acids and methyl alcohol.

Beta (b) Bonds ~ Chemical bonds linking 2 monosaccharides (glycosidic bonds) that can’t be broken by human enteric enzymes. the polysaccharide cellulose contains beta bonds

B-Glucans ~ useful fiber, consisting of branched carbohydrate chains of glucose monomers, that helps lower blood cholesterol levels. Found in barley and oats

Blood Glucose Levels ~ the quantity of glucose within the blood at any given time. additionally called blood sugar levels

Bran ~ The layers of protective coating around the grain kernel that are very rich in dietary fiber and nutrients

Cellulose ~ A straight-chained carbohydrate composed of thousands of glucose units joined by beta bonds. it is indigestible by humans and a part of dietary fiber

Chitin ~ A long-chain structural polysaccharide of slightly changed glucose. Found within the hard exterior skeletons of insects, crustaceans, and different invertebrates; additionally occurs within the cell walls of fungi

Chitosan ~ carbohydrate polysaccharide derived from chitin

Complex Carbohydrates ~ Chains of over 2 monosaccharides. could also be oligosaccharides or polysaccharides

Condensation ~ In chemistry, a reaction during which a chemical bond is created between 2 molecules by removal of a water molecule

Dental Caries ~ Destruction of the enamel surface of teeth caused by acids ensuing from microbial breakdown of sugars in the mouth

Diabetes Mellitus ~ A chronic illness in which uptake of blood sugar by body cells is impaired, leading to high glucose levels within the blood and excrement. type 1 is caused by a decreased pancreatic release of insulin. In type 2, target cells (e.g., fat and muscle cells) lose the ability to respond ordinarily to insulin

Dietary Fiber ~ Carbohydrates and lignins that are naturally in plants and are nondigestible; that is, they’re not digested and absorbed within the human bowel

Disaccharides ~ Carbohydrates composed of 2 monosaccharide units coupled by a glycosidic bond. They include sucrose (common table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and malt sugar

Endosperm ~ the biggest, middle portion of a grain kernel. The endosperm is high in starch to supply food for the growing plant embryo

Epinephrine ~ A hormone discharged in response to stress or abrupt danger, epinephrine raises blood sugar levels to prepare the body for “fight or flight.” additionally known as adrenaline

Fructose ~ a typical monosaccharide containing six carbons that are naturally present in honey and lots of fruits; often supplemented to foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. additionally called levulose or fructose

Functional Fiber ~ Isolated indigestible carbohydrates, together with some factory-made carbohydrates, that have beneficial effects in humans

Galactose ~ A monosaccharide containing six carbons which will be converted into glucose within the body. In foods and living systems, galactose typically is joined with different monosaccharides

Germ ~ The innermost part of a grain, situated at the base of the kernel, which will grow into a brand new plant. The germ is rich in protein, oils, vitamins, and minerals

Glucagon ~ made by alpha cells within the pancreas, this polypeptide hormone promotes the breakdown of liver glycogen to free glucose, thereby increasing blood glucose. -Glucagon secretion is stimulated by low blood sugar levels and by growth hormone

Glucose ~ a common simple sugar containing six carbons that are present in the blood; additionally referred to as dextrose and blood sugar. it is a part of the disaccharides sucrose, lactose, and malt sugar and numerous complex carbohydrates

Glycemic Index ~ A measure of the impact of food on blood sugar levels. it is the quantitative relation of the blood sugar value after feeding the same amount of white bread or glucose

Glycogen ~ an awfully large, highly branched polysaccharide composed of multiple glucose units. generally known as animal starch, glycogen is the primary storage form of glucose in animals

Gums ~ Dietary fibers, that contain galactose and other monosaccharides, found between plant cell walls

Hemicelluloses ~ a set of large polysaccharides in dietary fiber that are fermented more easily than a polysaccharide such as cellulose

Husk ~ The uneatable covering of a grain kernel. additionally known as the chaff

Insulin ~ synthesized by beta cells within the pancreas, this peptide hormone stimulates the uptake of blood sugar into muscle and fat cells, the synthesis of glycogen within the liver, and varied other processes

Ketone Bodies ~ Molecules fashioned when insufficient – carbohydrate is consumed to completely metabolize fat. Formation of ketone bodies is promoted by very low-glucose level and high acyl CoA level among cells. Acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate is typically improperly known as a ketone

Ketosis ~ Abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids

Lactose ~ A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; additionally known as milk sugar, as a result, it’s the main sugar in milk and dairy product

Lignins ~ Insoluble fibers composed of multi-ring alcohol units that represent the sole noncarbohydrate element of a dietary fiber

Maltose ~ A oligosaccharide composed of 2 glucose molecules;m was generally known as maltose. malt sugar rarely is present naturally in foods however it is synthesized whenever long molecules of starch break down

Monosaccharides ~ Any sugars that aren’t broken down throughout digestion and have the overall formula CnH2nOn, where n=3 to 7. The common monosaccharides glucose, fructose, and galactose all have six carbon atoms (n=6)

Mucilages ~ gelatinlike (jellylike) soluble fibers containing galactose, mannose, and different monosaccharides; found in alga

Neotame ~ synthetic sweeteners kind of like aspartame, however one that’s sweeter and doesn’t need a warning label for phenylketonuria

Nonnutritive Sweeteners ~ Substances that impart sweetness to foods, however, provide very little or no energy to the body; additionally known as artificial or alternative sweetener. They typically include acesulfame, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose

Oligosaccharides ~ Short saccharide chains composed of three to ten sugar molecules

Pancreatic amylase ~ Starch-digesting catalyst secreted by the pancreas

Pectins ~ a kind of dietary fiber found in fruits

Pentoses ~ Sugar molecules containing 5 carbon atoms

Phenylketonuria (PKU) ~ an inherited disease caused by scarcity or deficiency of the protein catalyst that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine

Sugar Alcohols ~ Compounds formed from monosaccharides by substitution a proton with hydroxyl (-OH); normally used as nutrient sweeteners. additionally known as polyols

Polysaccharides ~ Long saccharide chains composed of more than ten sugar molecules. Polysaccharides may be straight or branched

Refined Sweeteners ~ Composed of monosaccharides and disaccharides that have been extracted and processed from other types of foods

Resistant Starch ~ A starch that’s not digestible

Saccharin ~ a synthetic sweetener that tastes around three hundred to 700 times sweeter than table sugar

Simple Carbohydrates ~ Sugars composed of one sugar molecule (a monosaccharide) or 2 joined sugar molecules (a disaccharide)

Starch ~ the key storage type of sugar in plants; starch consists of long chains of glucose molecules in a straight (amylose) or branching (amylopectin) arrangement

Stevioside ~ A dietary supplement, not approved to be used as a sweetener, that’s extracted and refined from Stevia rebaudiana leaves

Sucralose ~ a synthetic sweetener made up of sucrose; it had been approved to be used within the united states in 1998 and has been utilized in Canada since 1992. Sucralose is non-nutritive and around 600 times sweeter than sugar

Sucrose ~ A oligosaccharide composed of 1 molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose joined along. additionally referred to as table sugar

Sugar Alcohols ~ Compounds formed from monosaccharides by substitution a proton with hydroxyl (-OH); normally used as nutrient sweeteners. additionally known as polyols

Total Fiber ~ The added sum of dietary fiber and useful fiber

Trehalose ~ A oligosaccharide of 2 sugar molecules, however with a linkage completely different from malt sugar. Used as an artificial additive and sweetener