NASM FNS Chapter 6 – Proteins and Amino Acids

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 6 of the NASM FNS

Acidosis ~ associated with abnormally low blood hydrogen ion concentration (below about 7.35) as a consequence of raised activity

Alkalosis ~ Associated with abnormally high blood pH (above around 7.45) because of increased in basicity

Amino Acid Pool ~ The amino acids in body tissues and fluids that are accessible for new polypeptide synthesis

Biological value (BV) ~ The extent of which polypeptides in a food will be incorporated into body proteins. BV is expressed as the proportion of the absorbed dietary nitrogen retained by the body

Buffers ~ Compounds or mixtures of compounds which will take up and unleash hydrogen ions to hold the pH of a solution constant. The buffering action of proteins and bicarbonate within the blood plays a significant role in maintaining the blood pH at 7.35 to 7.45

Celiac Disease ~ A sickness that involves an inability to digest gluten protein, a polypeptide found in wheat, rye, oats, and barley. If untreated, it causes flattening of the villi within the gut, resulting in severe malabsorption of nutrients. Symptoms include looseness of the bowels, fatty stools, swollen belly, and extreme fatigue

Chemical scoring ~ a technique to determine the protein quality of a food by comparing its amino acid composition with that of a reference polypeptide. additionally referred to as amino acid scoring

Chymotrypsinogen/Chymotrypsin ~ A enzyme created by the pancreas that’s converted from the inactive zymogen form (chymotrypsinogen) to the active form(chymotrypsin) within the bowel

Collagen ~ the foremost abundant fibrous polypeptide found in the body. collagen is the major constituent of human connective tissue, forms the molecular foundation for bones and teeth, and helps maintain the structure of blood vessels and other body tissues

Complementary protein ~ an incomplete food protein whose assortment of amino acids makes up for, or enhances, another food protein’s lack of specific indispensable amino acids so the mix of the two proteins provides ample amounts of all the indispensable amino acids

Complete (High-Quality) Proteins ~ Proteins that provide all of the indispensable amino acids within the proportions the body requires

Cystic Fibrosis ~ A hereditary disease that causes widespread dysfunction of the exocrine glands, leading to chronicling illness, abnormally high levels of electrolytes (e.g., sodium, potassium, chloride) in sweat, and deficiency of pancreatic enzymes required for digestion

Deamination ~ The removal of the N-terminus (-NH2) from an amino acid

Denaturation ~ an alternation within the three-dimensional structure of a protein resulting in an unfolded peptide chain that typically lacks biological activity

Dipeptide ~ 2 amino acids joined by a peptide linkage

Disulfide Bridge ~ A bond between the sulfur atoms of 2 sulfur-containing amino acids that helps stabilize the structure of polypeptide

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) ~ The carrier of genetic info. Specific regions of each deoxyribonucleic acid molecules, referred to as genes, act as blueprints for the synthesis of proteins

Edema ~ Swelling caused by the buildup of fluid between cells

Essential Fatty Acids ~ The fatty acids that the body requires but cannot synthesize, and that should be obtained from diet

Essential Nutrients ~ Substances that have got to be obtained in the diet because the body either cannot synthesize them or cannot make adequate amounts of them

Extracellular Fluid ~ The fluid situated outside the cells. it is composed for the most part of the liquid portion of the blood (plasma) and therefore the fluid between cells in tissues (interstitial fluid), with fluid within the GI tract, eyes, joints, and spinal cord contributing a small amount. It constitutes about a third of body water

Gout ~ an intensely painful sort of inflammatory arthritis that results from deposits of needle-like crystals of uric acid in connective tissues and/or the joint area between bones

Hemoglobin ~ The oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells that consists of 4 heme groups and 4 globin peptide chains. The presence of hemoglobin provides blood its red color

Hydrophilic Amino Acids ~ Amino acids that are drawn to water (water-loving)

Hydrophobic ~ Insoluble in water

Hydrophobic Amino Acids ~ Amino acids that are repelled by water (water-fearing)

Immune Response ~ A coordinated set of steps, together with production of antibodies, that the immune system takes in response to an antigen substance

Incomplete (Low-Quality) Proteins ~ Proteins that lack one or additional amino acids

Interstitial Fluid ~ The fluid between cells in tissues. additionally known as intercellular fluid

Intracellular Fluid ~ The fluid within the body’s cells. it always is high in potassium and phosphate and low in sodium and chloride. It constitutes about two-thirds of total body water

Intravascular Fluid ~ The fluid portion of the blood (plasma) contained in arteries, veins, and capillaries. It accounts for about fifteen % of the extracellular fluid

Keratin ~ A water-insoluble fibrous protein that’s the primary constituent of hair, nails, and also the outer layer of the skin

Kwashiorkor ~ a kind of deficiency disease that happens primarily in young kids who have an infectious disease and whose diets offer marginal amounts of energy and very little protein. Common symptoms include poor growth, edema, apathy, weakness, and susceptibleness to infections

Marasmus ~ a kind of deficiency disease ensuing from chronic inadequate consumption of dietary protein and energy that’s characterised by wasting of muscle, fat and other types of body tissue

Messenger RNA (mRNA) ~ Long, linear, single-stranded fiber molecules of ribonucleic acids synthesized from deoxyribonucleic acid templates that carry the amino acid sequence of 1 or additional proteins from the nucleus of the cell to the cytosol, where the ribosomes translate messenger RNA into proteins

Motor Proteins ~ Proteins that use energy and convert it into some kind of mechanical work. Motor proteins are active in processes like dividing cells, contracting muscle, and swimming sperm cells

Neurotransmitters ~ Substances discharged at the end of a excited neuron that diffuse across a smallish gap and bind to another neuron or muscle fiber, stimulating or inhibiting it

Nitrogen Balance ~ Nitrogenous intake minus the added sum of all sources of nitrogenous excretion

Nitrogen Equilibrium ~ Nitrogenous intake equals the added sum of all sources of nitrogenous excretion; Where the nitrogenous balance equals zero

Nonessential Fatty Acids ~ The fatty acids that your body will build once they are required. it’s not necessary to consume them in the diet

Oligopeptide ~ Four to ten amino acids joined by amide bonds

Peptide Bond ~ The bond between 2 amino acid residues formed once a carboxyl (-COOH) group of 1 amino acid joins an amino (-NH2) group of another amino acid, releasing water during the process

Polypeptide ~ more than ten amino acids joined by amide bonds

Positive nitrogen balance ~ Nitrogenous intake exceeds the added sum of all sources of nitrogenous excretion

Precursor ~ A substance that’s converted into another active substance. protein precursors also are known as proenzymes

Proenzymes ~ Inactive precursors of enzymes

Proteases ~ Enzymes that break down polypeptides into peptides and amino acids

Protein Turnover ~ The constant synthesis and breakdown of proteins within the body

Protein efficiency ratio (PER) ~ protein quality calculated by comparison of the weight gain of growing animals fed a sampled protein with growing animals fed a high-quality reference protein. It depends on each the digestibleness and therefore the amino acid composition of a peptide

Protein Hydrolysates ~ proteins that are treated with acid or enzymes hydrolyze them down into amino acids and polypeptides

Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) ~ A condition ensuing from long-run inadequate intakes of energy and protein which will result in wasting of body tissues and exaggerated susceptibleness to infection

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ~ a kind of RNA polymer that’s a significant part of ribosomes. It provides a structural framework for peptide synthesis and orchestrates the entire process

Ribosomes ~ Cell parts composed of peptide placed within the cytosol that translate messenger RNA into polypeptide sequences

Tripeptide ~ 3 amino acids joined by amide bonds

Trypsinogen/Trypsin ~ A proteolytic enzyme made by the pancreas that’s converted from the inactive proenzyme type (trypsinogen) to the active type (trypsin) within the small intestine

Urea ~ the primary nitrogen-containing waste product in mammals. synthesized in liver cells from ammonia and CO2, urea is carried via the blood to the kidneys, where it is excreted in the body waste

Wasting ~ The breakdown of body tissue like muscle and organ to be used as a protein supply in the event that the diet lacks dietary protein