NASM FNS Chapter 9 – Energy Balance and Weight Management: Finding Your Equilibrium

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 9 of the NASM FNS

Android obesity ~ Excess storage of fat situated primarily within the abdominal cavity

Appetite ~ A psychological need to eat that is associated with the pleasant sensations typically related to food

Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) ~ The basal metabolic rate (BMR) scaled to twenty four hours. typically used interchangeably with REE

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) ~ A clinical calculation of resting energy expenditure performed upon waking up, ten to twelve hours after ingestion, and twelve to eighteen hours after any significant physical activity. usually used interchangeably with RMR

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) ~ Technique to estimate amounts of total body water, lean tissue mass, and total body fat. It uses the resistance of tissue to the flow of an alternating electrical current

BOD POD ~ a tool used to measure the density of the body based on the amount of air displaced as someone sits in a sealed chamber of known volume

Body Composition ~ The chemical or anatomical composition of the body. Most commonly this is defined as the proportions of fat, muscle, bone, and other tissues within the body

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) ~ A disorder of eating in which a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance happens to primary symptom

Body Fat Distribution ~ The pattern of fat distribution on the body

Body Image ~ an individual’s mental construct of his or her physical appearance, created from many various influences

Body Mass Index (BMI) ~ the body’s weight (in kilograms) divide by the square height (in meters), expressed in units of kg/m2. additionally known as Quetelet index

Bomb Calorimeter ~ a tool that uses the heat of combustion to accurately measure the energy content of a food

Calorimeter ~ a tool used to measure quantities of heat generated by numerous processes

Calorimetry ~ The measuring of the quantity of heat given off by an organism. it is used to determine total energy expenditure

Densitometry ~ A method for estimating body composition from the measurement of total body density

Direct calorimetry ~ Determination of energy use by the body by measuring the heat discharged from an organism enclosed in an exceedingly small insulated chamber enclosed by water. the rise in the temperature of the water is directly related to the energy utilized by the organism

Doubly labeled Water ~ a technique for measuring daily energy expenditure over extended time periods, usually seven to fourteen days, whereas subjects are living in their usual environments. small amounts of water that is isotopically tagged with deuterium and oxygen-18 (2H2O and H218O) are eaten. Energy expenditure can be calculated from the difference between the rates at that the body loses each type of isotype

Energy ~ The capability to do work. The energy in food is a form of chemical energy, that the body converts to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy

Energy Balance ~ The balance within the body between amounts of energy consumed and exhausted

Energy Equilibrium ~ A balance of energy intake and output that leads to very little or no change in weight over tme

Energy Intake ~ The caloric or energy content of food provided by the sources of dietary energy: carbohydrate (4 kcal/g), protein (4 kcal/g), fat (9 kcal/g), and alcohol (7 kcal/g)

Energy Output ~ the employment of calories or energy for basic body functions, physical activity, and processing of consumed foods

Extreme obesity ~ obesity characterised by body weight surpassing 100% of normal; a condition so severe if usually requires surgery

Ghrelin ~ A peptide hormone made by the stomach that stimulates feeding; generally known as the “hunger hormone”

Gynoid obesity ~ Storage of fat placed primarily within the buttocks and thighs. additionally known as gynecoid obesity

Hunger ~ the internal, physiological drive to seek out and consume food. not like appetite, hunger is sometimes experienced as a negative sensation, usually manifesting as an uneasy or painful sensation; the recurrent and involuntary lack of access to seek out that food may produce deficiency disease over time

Underwater weighing ~ determining individual body density by measuring the amount of water displaced once the body is absolutely submerged in a specialised tank of water. additionally known as hydrostatic weighing

Hypothalamus ~ a section of the brain involved in regulation of hunger and satiation, respiration, body temperature, water balance, and other body functions

Indirect calorimetry ~ Determination of energy use by the body while not directly measuring the production of heat. strategies include gas exchange, the measurement of oxygen uptake and/or CO2 output, and also the doubly labelled water method

Isotopes ~ forms of an element in which the atoms have same number of protons however completely different numbers of neutrons

Lean Body Mass ~ The portion of the body exclusive of stored fat, together with muscle, bone, connective tissue, organs, and water

Leptin ~ A hormone created by fat cells that signals the amount of body fat content and influences food intake; generally known as “satiety hormone”

Negative Energy Balance ~ Energy intake is less than energy expenditure, leading to a depletion of body energy stores and weight loss

Negative Self-Talk ~ Mental or verbal statements made to one’s self that reinforce negative or harmful self-perceptions

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) ~ A neurochemical widely distributed throughout the brain and peripheral nerve tissue. NPY activity has been connected to feeding behavior, depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular performance

Obesity ~ BMI at or above thirty kgm2

Overweight ~ BMI at or above 25 kg/m2 and fewer than 30 kg/m2

Positive Energy Balance ~ Energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, leading to a rise in body energy stores and weight gain

Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) ~ The minimum energy required to keep up basic physiological functions (e.g., heartbeat, muscle function, respiration). The resting rate of metabolism (RMR) extrapolated to twenty four hours. typically used interchangeably with BEE

Resting metabolic rate (RMR) ~ A clinical measurement of resting energy expenditure performed 3 to four hours once ingestion or undergoing significant physical activity. typically used interchangeably with basal metabolic rate

Satiation ~ Feeling of satisfaction and fullness that terminates a meal

Satiety ~ the results of a food or meal that delay consequent intake. a sense of satisfaction and fullness following ingestion that quells the need for food

Total Body Water ~ All of the water within the body, as well as intracellular and extracellular water, and water within the urinary and GI tracts

Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) ~ the whole of the resting energy expenditure (REE), energy utilized in physical activity, and energy utilized in processing food (TEF); which is typically expressed in kilocalories per day

Underwater weighing ~ determining individual body density by measuring the amount of water displaced once the body is absolutely submerged in a specialised tank of water. additionally known as hydrostatic weighing

Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCD) ~ Diets supplying 400 to 800 kilocalories per day, that include adequate high-quality dietary protein, very little or no fat, very little sugar

Waist Circumference ~ The waist measure, as a marker of abdominal fat content; can be used to possibly indicate health risks

Weight cycling ~ perennial periods of gaining or losing weight. additionally known as yo-yo dieting

Weight Management ~ The adoption of healthful and sustainable ingestion and exercise behaviors that scale back illness risk and improve well-being

Underweight ~ BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2

Binge ~ Consumption of a really large amount of food in an exceedingly short time (e.g., 2 hours) often accompanied by a loss of management over how much and what is consumed

Binge Eaters ~ people who habitually consume a very great amount of food in a very short amount of time (e.g., 2 hours) and lose the ability to control over what quantity and what’s eaten

Binge-Eating Disorder ~ an disorder of eating marked by recurrent episodes of binge intake and a sense of loss of control. The diagnosis relies on an individual’s having a median of at least 2 binge-eating episodes per week for 6 months

Hypercellular obesity ~ obesity because of an above-average number of fat cells

Restrained Eaters ~ people who habitually avoid food as long as possible, and then gorge on food

Sleep Apnea ~ Periods of the absence of respiration throughout sleep