NASM FNS Chapter 10 – Fat-Soluble Vitamins

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 10 of the NASM FNS

Calcitonin ~ A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland in responses to elevated blood calcium. It stimulates calcium deposition in bone and calcium excretion by the kidneys, therefore reducing blood calcium concentration

Calmodulin ~ A calcium-binding protein that regulates a range of cellular activities, like cellular division and proliferation

Carotenodermia ~ A harmless yellow-orange cast to the skin because of high levels of carotenoids within the blood resulting from consumption of very large amounts of carotenoid-rich foods, like carrot juice

Carotenoids ~ a group of yellow, orange, and red pigments in plants, together with foods. several of these compounds are precursors of vitamin A

Cells ~ the fundamental structural units of all living tissues, that have 2 major parts: the nucleus and the cytosol

Cornea ~ The clear outer surface of the eye

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Epithelial Cells ~ The multimillion number of cells that line and shield the external and internal surfaces of the boy. epithelial cells form epithelial tissues like skin and mucose membranes

Epithelial Tissues ~ Closely packed layers of epithelial cells that cowl the body and line its cavities

Glutathione ~ A tripeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that is involved in the protection of cells from oxidative cellular damage

Glutathione Peroxidase ~ A selenium-containing enzyme that promotes the breakdown of fatty acids that have undergone peroxidation

Goblet Cells ~ one of the various varieties of specializing cells that manufacture and secrete mucus. These cells are found within the stomach, intestines, and parts of the respiratory tract

Hemolysis ~ The breakdown of red blood cells that usually happens at the end of a red blood cell’s normal lifetime. This method releases hemoglobin

Hyperkeratosis ~ Excessive accumulation of the protein keratin that produces rough and bumpy skin, most ordinarily affecting the palms and soles, also as flexure areas (elbows, knees, wrists, ankles). It will have an effect on wet epithelial tissues and impair their ability to secrete mucus. additionally known as hyperkeratinization

Iodopsin ~ Color-sensitive pigment molecules in cone cells that comprise opsin-like proteins combined with retinal

Lipid Peroxidation ~ Production of unstable, extremely reactive lipid molecules that contain excess amounts of oxygen

Menadione ~ medicative type of vitamin K that may be a toxicant to infants. additionally referred to as vitamin K3

Menaquinones ~ varieties of naphthoquinone (Vitamin K) that come from -animal sources. additionally created by enteric microbes, they’re conjointly referred to as vitaminK2

Night-Eating Syndrome (NES) ~ a disorder of eating during which a habitual pattern of interrupting sleep to eat is the primary symptom

Opsin ~ A protein that mixes with retinal synthesize rhodopsin in rod cells

Orexin ~ a kind of hormone in the brain which may have an effect on food consumption

Osteoblasts ~ Bone cells that promote human bone deposition and growth

Osteoclasts ~ Bone cells that promote human bone reabsorption and calcium ion mobilization

Osteomalacia ~ A illness in adults that results from vitamin D deficiency; it’s marked by softening of the bones resulting in bending of the spine, bowing of the legs, and enhanced risk for fractures

Osteoporosis ~ A bone sickness characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density as well as the appearance of smallish holes in bones due in part to the loss of minerals

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Parathyroid Hormone ~ A hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland glands in response to low blood calcium concentration. It stimulates calcium ion release from bone and calcium absorption by the intestines, whereas decreasing calcium ion excretion by the kidneys. It acts in conjunction with 1.25(OH)2D3 to lift blood calcium ion concentration. additionally known as parathormone-1

Phylloquinone ~ the form of vitamin k (naphthoquinone) that comes from plant sources. additionally referred to as vitamin K1(phylloquinone)

Preformed vitamin A ~ Retinyl esters, the primary storage type of vitamin A. concerning ninety percent % of dietary vitamin A1 is in the form of esters, principally found in foods from animal sources

Provitamin A ~ carotenoid precursors of vitamin A in foods of plant origin, primarily deeply colored fruits and vegetables

Provitamins ~ Inactive types of vitamins that the body will convert into active usable forms. additionally stated as nutriment precursors

Retina ~ A paper-thin tissue that lines the rear of the eye and contains cells referred to as rods and cones

Retinal ~ The aldehyde type of  nutriment; one among the retinoids; the active type of vitamin A in the photoreceptors of the retina; interconvertible with vitamin A1

Retinoic Acid ~ The acid form of vitamin A; one among the retinoids; formed from retinal however not interconvertible; helps growth, cells differentiation, and the immune system; doesn’t have a role in vision or sexual reproduction

Retinoids ~ Compounds in foods that have chemical structures almost like vitamin A. Retinoids include the active types of vitamin A (retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid) and the main storage kinds of vitamin A1 (retinyl esters)

Retinol ~ The alcohol type of vitamin A; one amongst the retinoids; thought to be the most physiologically active variety of vitamin A; interconvertible with retinal

Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE) ~ A unit of measuring of the vitamin A content of a food. One RAE equals one mg of vitamin A1

Retinol-Binding protein (RBP) ~ A carrier polypeptide that binds to vitamin A1 and transports it within the blood from the liver to destination cells

Retinyl Esters ~ the primary storage type of vitamin A; one among the retinoids. Retinyl esters are vitamin A1 combined with fatty acids, typically palmitate. additionally referred to as preformed vitamin a, a fat-soluble vitamin

Rhodopsin ~ Found in rod cells, a photosensitive pigment molecule that consists of a peptide known as opsin combined with retinal

Rickets ~ A bone sickness in kids that results from calciferol deficiency

Stem Cells ~ A embryonic cell whose daughter cells can differentiate into different cell types

Teratogen ~ Any substance that causes birth defects

Thaumatin ~ Mixture of sweet-tasting proteins from a West African fruit. about 2,000 times sweeter then saccharose and features a licorice aftersensation. Breaks down once heated to cooking temperatures

Tocopherol ~ The chemical name for vitamin E. There are four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta), however solely alpha-tocopherol is active within the body

Tocotrienols ~ Four compounds (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) with chemicals associated with tocopherols. The tocotrienols and tocopherols are jointly referred to as vitamin E

Precursor ~ A substance that’s converted into another active substance. protein precursors also are known as proenzymes

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