NASM FNS Chapter 8 – Metabolism

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 8 of the NASM FNS

Acetyl CoA ~ A key intermediate within the metabolic breakdown of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. It consists of a two-carbon acetate group coupled to coenzyme A, that comes from B vitamin

Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) ~ The compound made upon decomposition of adenosine triphosphate and can be used to synthesize adenosine triphosphate. Composed of nucleoside and two phosphate groups attached.

Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) ~ chemical reaction product of ADP and of nucleic acids. Composed of the nucleoside adenosine and one phosphate molecule

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) ~ A high-energy compound that is the most direct fuel that cells use to synthesize molecules, contract muscles, transport substances, and perform different cellular tasks

Aerobic ~ pertaining to the presence of or no want for oxygen. the entire breakdown of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water happens solely via aerobic metabolism. The Krebs cycle and electron transport chain are aerobic pathways

Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) ~ The protein that catalyzes the oxidization of ethyl alcohol and other aliphatic alcohols

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) ~ The protein that catalyzes the conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate, which ultimately forms acetyl CoA

Anabolism ~ Any biological process whereby cells convert monomeric substances into additional polymeric ones

Anaerobic ~ pertaining to the absence of oxygen or the power of a metabolic reaction to occur in the absence of oxygen

Beta-Oxidation ~ The breakdown of a fatty acid (lipid) into varied molecules of the two-carbon compound acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)

Biosynthesis ~ Chemical reactions that transform monomeric molecules into polymeric biomolecules, particularly carbohydrates, lipids, protein, nucleotides, and nucleic acids

Carnitine ~ A compound that transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria, where they undergo metabolic beta-oxidation

Catabolism ~ Any metabolic process whereby cells break down polymeric substances into monomeric, smaller ones

Cells ~ the fundamental structural units of all living tissues, that have 2 major parts: the nucleus and the cytosol

Chemical Energy ~ Energy contained within the bonds between atoms of a molecule

Citric Acid Cycle ~ The metabolic pathway occurring in mitochondria within which the acetyl portion (CH3COO-) of acetyl CoA is oxidized to yield 2 molecules of CO2 and one molecule each of NADH, FADH2, and GTP. additionally referred to as the Krebs cycle and the tricarboxylic acid cycle

Coenzyme A ~ coenzyme A is a compound derived from the vitamin pantothenic acid (a B-complex vitamin)

Coenzymes ~ Organic compounds, usually vitamin B derivatives, that combine with an inactive catalyst to make an active catalyst. Coenzymes associate closely with these enzymes, permitting them to catalyze certain metabolic reactions inside the cell

Cofactors ~ Compounds needed for an enzyme to be active. Cofactors include coenzymes and metal ions like iron (Fé+), copper (Cú+), and magnesium (Mg2+)

Cori Cycle ~ The circular path that regenerates NAD+ and glucose once oxygen is low and lactate and NADH build up in excess in muscle tissue

Cytoplasm ~ the material of the cell, excluding the cell nucleus and cell membranes. The cytoplasm includes the semifluid cytoplasm, the organelles, and different particles

Cytosol ~ The semifluid within the plasma membrane, excluding organelles. The cytoplasm is the site of metabolism and fatty acid synthesis

Electron Transport Chain ~ an organized series of carrier molecules- together with flavin mononucleotide (FMN), coenzyme Q, and several other cytochromes- that are located in mitochondrial membranes and shuttle electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen, yielding water and adenosine triphosphate

FADH2 ~ The reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). This molecule is a coenzyme, that and is derived from the vitamin B complex riboflavin, acts as an electron carrier in cells and undergoes reversible oxidation and reduction

Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) ~ A coenzyme molecule synthesized within the body from riboflavin. It undergoes reversible oxidation and reduction and so acts as an electron carrier in cells. fad is the alter form; FADH2 is the reduced form

Glucogenic ~ In metabolism of amino acids, a term describing an amino acid broken down into pyruvate or an intermediate of the TCA cycle; that is, any compound that can be employed in gluconeogenesis to create glucose

Gluconeogenesis ~ Synthesis of glucose inside the body from noncarbohydrate precursors such as amino acids, lactate, and glycerol. Fatty acids cannot be chemically converted to glucose

Glycogenesis ~ The formation of starch from glucose

Glycogenolysis ~ The breakdown of starch to glucose

Glycolysis ~ The anaerobic metabolic pathway that breaks a glucose molecule into 2 molecules of pyruvate and yields 2 molecules of adenosine triphosphate and 2molecules of NADH. glycolysis happens in the cytoplasm of a cell

Guanosine Triphosphate ~ A high-energy compound, almost like adenosine triphosphate, however with 3 phosphate groups linked to guanosine

Hydrogen Ions ~ additionally referred to as protons. A lone hydrogen ion features a positive charge (H+). It doesn’t have its own electron, however, it will share one with another atom

Glutathione Peroxidase ~ A selenium-containing enzyme that promotes the breakdown of fatty acids that have undergone peroxidation

Glucagon ~ made by alpha cells within the pancreas, this polypeptide hormone promotes the breakdown of liver glycogen to free glucose, thereby increasing blood glucose. -Glucagon secretion is stimulated by low blood sugar levels and by growth hormone

Glycerol ~ an alcohol that contains 3 carbon atoms, each of which has an attached hydroxyl (-OH). It forms the backbone of mono-, di-, and triglycerides

Hormones ~ Chemical messengers that are secreted into the blood by one tissue and act on cells in another a part of the body

Hydrophilic Amino Acids ~ Amino acids that are drawn to water (water-loving)

Hydrophobic Amino Acids ~ Amino acids that are repelled by water (water-fearing)

Ketoacidosis ~ acidification of the blood caused by a buildup of ketone bodies. it’s primarily a consequence of uncontrolled type one diabetes mellitus and may be life-threatening

Ketogenesis ~ the process during which excess acyl CoA from fatty acid oxidization is converted into the ketone bodies, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and propanone

Ketogenic ~ in the metabolism of amino acids, a term describing an amino acid broken down into acyl CoA (which are often used to convert back into ketone bodies)

Ketone Bodies ~ Molecules fashioned when insufficient – carbohydrate is consumed to completely metabolize fat. Formation of ketone bodies is promoted by very low glucose level and high acyl CoA level among cells. Acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate is typically improperly known as a ketone

Ketones ~ Organic compounds that contain a unit consisting of C=O (a carbon-oxygen double bond) sure to 2 hydrocarbons. Pyruvate and fructose are other examples of ketones.  Acetate and acetoacetate are both ketones and ketone bodies. though beta-hydroxybutyrate isn’t a ketone, it’s a ketone body

Ketosis ~ Abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids

Krebs cycle ~ The metabolic pathway occurring in mitochondria within which the acetyl portion (CH3COO-) of acetyl CoA is oxidized to yield 2 molecules of CO2 and one molecule each of NADH, FADH2, and GTP. additionally referred to as the Krebs cycle and the tricarboxylic acid cycle

Lactate ~ The ionized variety of lactic acid, a three-carbon acid. it’s produced once insufficient oxygen is present in cells to oxidize pyruvate

Lipogenesis ~ Synthesis of fatty acids, primarily in liver cells, from acyl CoA, derived from the metabolism of alcohol and a few amino acids

Metabolic Pathway ~ A series of chemical reactions that either break down a polymeric compound into smaller units (catabolism) or synthesize additional complex polymeric molecules from smaller ones (anabolism)

Metabolism ~ All chemical reactions inside organisms that empower them to homeostatically maintain life. the 2 main classes of metabolism are catabolic pathways (catabolism) and anabolic pathways (anabolism)

Metabolites ~ Any substances synthesized via metabolism

Hypothalamus ~ a section of the brain involved in the regulation of hunger and satiation, respiration, body temperature, water balance, and other body functions

Mitochondria (Mitochondrion) ~ The sites of aerobic production of adenosine triphosphate, where nearly most of the energy from sugar, protein, and fat is captured. referred to as the “power plants” of the cells, the mitochondria contain 2 extremely specialized membranes, an outer membrane and an extremely invaginated inner membrane, that separate 2 compartments, the interior matrix area and also the narrow intermembrane area. an individual’s cell contains around 2,000 mitochondria

NADH ~ The reduced type of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). This molecule, derived from the water-soluble vitamin B complex, acts as an electron carrier in cells and undergoes reversible chemical reaction and reduction

NADPH ~ The reduced type of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. This coenzyme, which is chemically synthesized from the water-soluble vitamin B complex (niacin), acts as an electron carrier in cells, undergoing reversible oxidization and reduction. The oxidized type is NADP+

Nucleus ~ Primary site of genetic info within the cell, capsulate in a double-layered membrane. The nucleus contains the chromosomes and is the site of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, the “machinery” for polypeptide synthesis in the cytoplasm

Organelles ~ varied membrane-bound structures that form a part of the cytosol. Organelles, as well as mitochondria and lysosomes, perform specialized metabolic functions

Oxaloacetate ~ A four-carbon intermediate compound in the TCA cycle. acyl CoA combines with free oxalacetate in mitochondria, forming citric acid and starting the cycle

Oxidative Phosphorylation ~ Formation of adenosine triphosphate from ADP and Pi coupled to the flow of electrons on the electron transport chain

Photosynthesis ~ the method by that green plants use energy from the sun to provide carbohydrates (hexoses) from CO2 and water

Pyrophosphate (Pi) ~ inorganic phosphate. This high-energy phosphate group is a very important part of adenosine triphosphate, ADP, AMP

Pyruvate ~ The three-carbon compound that results from the glycolytic breakdown of glucose. Pyruvate, the salt type of pyruvic acid, can also be derived from glycerin alcohol and a few amino acids

Transamination ~ The transfer of an amino group from an amino acid to a carbon skeleton to create a unique amino acid

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle ~ The metabolic pathway occurring in mitochondria within which the acetyl portion (CH3COO-) of acetyl CoA is oxidized to yield 2 molecules of CO2 and one molecule each of NADH, FADH2, and GTP. additionally referred to as the Krebs cycle and the tricarboxylic acid cycle

Beta-Oxidation ~ The breakdown of a fatty acid (lipid) into varied molecules of the two-carbon compound acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)

Gluconeogenesis ~ Synthesis of glucose inside the body from noncarbohydrate precursors such as amino acids, lactate, and glycerol. Fatty acids cannot be chemically converted to glucose