NASM FNS Chapter 12 – Water and Major Minerals

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 12 of the NASM FNS

Aldosterone ~ A endocrine steroid hormone secreted from the adrenal glands that act on the kidneys to control homeostatic electrolyte concentration and water balance. It raises normal blood pressure by promoting retention of sodium (salt) (and therefore water) and excretion of potassium ions

Renin ~ an enzyme catalyst, made by the kidney, that affects blood pressure by catalyzing the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

Anions ~ Ions that carry a negative electric charge

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) ~ A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It acts to increase blood pressure and prevents fluid excretion by the kidneys. additionally known as vasopressin

Calmodulin ~ A calcium-binding protein that regulates a range of cellular activities, like cellular division and proliferation

Cations ~ Ions that carry a positive electrical charge

Ciliary Action ~ wavelike motion of tiny capillary-like projections on some cells

Electrolytes ~ Substances that dissociate into charged particles (ions) when dissolved in water or other solvents and therefore become capable of conducting an electrical current. The terms electrolyte and ion are generally used interchangeably

Fibrin ~ A stringy, insoluble protein that is the ultimate product of the blood-clotting process

Heat capacity ~ Of energy needed to raise the temperature of a substance one-degree celsius

Hydrogen Bonds ~ Noncovalent bonds between hydrogen and an atom, usually oxygen, in another molecule

Hypercalcemia ~ Abnormally high concentrations of calcium within the blood

Hypercellular obesity ~ obesity because of an above-average number of fat cells

Hypercholesterolemia ~ The presence of greater than normal amounts of sterol within the blood

Hyperglycemia ~ Abnormally high concentrations of glucose within the blood

Hyperkalemia ~ Abnormally high potassium concentrations within the blood

Hyperkeratosis ~ Excessive accumulation of the protein keratin that produces rough and bumpy skin, most ordinarily affecting the palms and soles, also as flexure areas (elbows, knees, wrists, ankles). It will have an effect on wet epithelial tissues and impair their ability to secrete mucus. additionally known as hyperkeratinization

Hypermagnesemia ~ an abnormally high concentration of magnesium within the blood

Hypernatremia ~ Abnormally high sodium concentrations within the blood because of increased renal retention of sodium or rapid intake of large amounts of salt

Hyperparathyroidism ~ Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone, that alters calcium metabolism

Hyperphosphatemia ~ Abnormally high phosphate concentration within the blood

Hyperplastic obesity (Hyperplasia) ~ obesity due to a rise in both the size and number of fat cells

Hypocalcemia ~ A deficiency of calcium within the blood

Hypoglycemia ~ Abnormally low concentration of glucose within the blood; any blood glucose value below forty to fifty mg/dL of blood

Hypogonadism ~ attenuated functional activity of the gonads (ovaries or testes) with retardation of growth and sexual development

Hypokalemia ~ Inadequate levels of potassium within the blood

Hypomagnesemia ~ an abnormally low concentration of magnesium within the blood

Hyponatremia ~ Abnormally low sodium concentrations within the blood because of excessive excretion of sodium (by the kidney), prolonged regurgitation, or diarrhea

Hypophosphatemia ~ Abnormally low phosphate concentration within the blood

Hypothalamus ~ a section of the brain involved in the regulation of hunger and satiation, respiration, body temperature, water balance, and other body functions

Hypotheses ~ Scientists’ “educated guesses” to elucidate phenomena

Hypothyroidism ~ The results of a lowered level of circulating thyroid hormone, with attenuation of mental and physical functions

Insensible Water Loss ~ The continual loss of body water by evaporation from the tract and diffusion through the skin

Ions ~ Atoms or teams of atoms with an electrical charge resulting from the loss or gain of 1 or additional electrons

Major Mineral ~ a significant mineral is needed in the diet and is typically present within the body in massive amounts compared with trace minerals

Trace Minerals ~ Trace mineral are present within the body and needed in the diet in comparatively little amounts compared with major minerals. additionally referred to as microminerals

Macrominerals ~ Major minerals needed in the diet and present within the body in massive amounts compared with trace minerals

Metabolic Alkalosis ~ an abnormal hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of body fluids, typically caused by very significant loss of acid from the body or accrued levels of hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)

Osmolarity ~ The concentration of dissolved particles (e.g., electrolytes) in a solution expressed per unit of volume

Osmoreceptors ~ Neurons within the hypothalamus that discover changes within the fluid concentration in blood and regulate the discharge of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone -ADH)

Osmosis ~ The movement of a solvent, like water, through a semipermeable cell membrane from the low-solute to the high-solute solution unit the concentrations on each side of the membrane are equal

Osmotic Pressure ~ The pressure exerted on a semipermeable cell membrane by a solvent, typically water, moving from the facet of high-solute concentration

Oxalate (Oxalic Acid) ~ an organic acid in some foliaceous green vegetables, like spinach, that brings to calcium to create calcium oxalate, an insoluble compound the body cannot absorb

Oxaloacetate ~ A four-carbon intermediate compound in the TCA cycle. acyl CoA combines with free oxalacetate in mitochondria, forming citric acid and starting the cycle

Phosphorylation ~ The addition of phosphate to an organic (carbon-containing) compound. oxidative phosphorylation is the formation of high-energy phosphate bonds (ADP+Pi Æ ATP) from the energy discharged by oxidization of energy-yielding nutrients

Phytate (Phytic Acid) ~ A phosphorus-containing compound within the outer husks of cereal grains that binds with minerals and inhibits their absorption

Plasma ~ The fluid portion of the blood that contains blood cells and other parts

Renin ~ an enzyme catalyst, made by the kidney, that affects blood pressure by catalyzing the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

Salts ~ Compounds that result from the replacement of the hydrogen of an acid with a metal or a group that acts sort of like a metal

Semipermeable Membrane ~ Membrane that permits passage of some substances however it blocks others

Sodium-Potassium Pumps ~ Mechanisms that pump sodium ions out of a cell, permitting potassium ions to enter the cell

Solutes ~ Substances that are dissolved in a solvent

Vasoconstrictor ~ A substance that causes blood vessels to constrict

vasopressin ~ A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It acts to increase blood pressure and prevents fluid excretion by the kidneys. additionally known as vasopressin