NASM FNS Chapter 13 – Trace Minerals

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 13 of the NASM FNS

Albumin ~ A polypeptide that circulates within the blood and functions in the circulatory transport of the many minerals and a few chemical compounds

Ceruloplasmin ~ A copper-dependent catalyst responsible for the oxidation of ferrous ion (Fé+) to ferric ion (Fě+), enabling iron to bind to transferrin. additionally referred to as ferroxidase I

Chelation therapy ~ Use of a chelator (e.g., EDTA) to bind metal ions to get rid of them from the body

Cretinism ~ A inborn condition usually caused by severe iodine deficiency throughout gestation, that is characterized by attenuated physical and mental development

Crohn’s Disease ~ A malady that causes inflammation and ulceration on sections of the internal organ tract

Cytochromes ~ heme proteins that transfer electrons within the electron transport chain through the alternate oxidation and reduction of iron

Ferric Iron (Fě+) ~ The oxidized form of iron able to be connected to transferrin for transport

Ferritin ~ a complex of iron and apoferritin that’s a significant storage form of iron

Ferrous Iron (Fé+) ~ The reduced kind of iron most typically found in food

Fluorosis ~ dappled discoloration and pitting of tooth enamel caused by prolonged consumption of excessive fluoride-containing compounds

Galvanized ~ Iron or steel with a thin layer of zinc plated onto it to guard against corrosion

Goiter ~ A chronic enlargement of the thyroid gland, visible as a swelling at the front of the neck; sometimes associated with iodine deficiency

Goitrogens ~ Compounds that may induce goiter

Hematocrit ~ percentage volume occupied by packed red blood cells in a centrifuged sample of blood

Heme ~ A chemical complex with a central iron atom (ferric iron Fě+) that forms the oxygen-binding part of hemoglobin and myoglobin

Heme Iron ~ The iron found in hemoprotein and hemoprotein of animal foods

Hemosiderin ~ an insoluble kind of storage iron

Hypogonadism ~ attenuated functional activity of the gonads (ovaries or testes) with retardation of growth and sexual development

Hypothyroidism ~ The results of a lowered level of circulating thyroid hormone, with attenuation of mental and physical functions

Keshan disease ~ Selenium-deficiency disease that impairs the structure and function of the cardiac system

Menkes Syndrome ~ A genetic defect that ends up in copper deficiency

Metalloproteins ~ Proteins with a mineral cofactor as a vital piece of their structure

Metallothionein ~ an abundant, catalyst, zinc-containing polypeptide

Mineralization ~ The addition of minerals, like calcium and phosphorus, to bones and teeth

Minerals ~ Inorganic compounds required for growth and for regulation of body processes

Myelin Sheath ~ The protecting coating surrounds nerve fibers

Myelinization ~ Development of the myelin sheath, a substance that surrounds nerve fibers

Myoglobin ~ The oxygen-transporting polypeptide of muscle that resembles blood hemoglobin in function

Nonheme Iron ~ The iron in plants as well as the iron in animal foods that are not a part of hemoglobin or hemoprotein

Polyphenols ~ Organic compounds that include an unsaturated ring containing more than one -OH group as a part of their chemical structures; might produce bitterness in caffeinated beverages such as coffee and tea

Protoporphyrin ~ A chemical complex that mixes with iron to create heme

Selenocysteine ~ A selenium-containing amino acid that’s the biologically active variety of selenium

Selenomethionine ~ A selenium-containing amino acid derived from methionine that’s the storage kind of selenium

Silicosis ~ A sickness that results from excess silicon element exposure

Thyroglobulin ~ The storage variety of thyroid hormone inside thyroid gland

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) ~ Secreted from the pituitary gland at the bottom of the brain, an endocrine hormone that regulates the synthesis of thyroid hormones

Thyroxine (T4) ~ an iodine-containing protein hormone secreted by the thyroid gland to control the speed of cell metabolism; better-known biochemically as tetraiodothyronine

Total Parental Nutrition (TPN) ~ Feeding an individual by giving all essential nutrients intravenously

Transferrin ~ A peptide synthesized in the liver that transports iron within the blood to the erythroblasts to be used in haem synthesis

Transferrin Receptors ~ specialized receptors on the plasma membrane that bind transferrin

Transferrin Saturation ~ The extent to that transferrin has vacant iron-binding sites (e.g., low transferrin saturation indicates a high proportion of vacant iron-binding sites)

Triiodothyronine (T3) ~ an iodine-containing thyroid hormone with many times the biological activity of tetraiodothyronine (T4)

Wilson’s Disease ~ congenital disease of accumulated copper absorption, that results in poisonous levels within the liver and heart