NASM FNS Chapter 11 – Water-Soluble Vitamins

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 11 of the NASM FNS

Anemia ~ Abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin within the bloodstream; which can and is often caused by impaired synthesis of red blood cells, enhanced destruction of red cells, or very significant loss of blood

Sports Anemia ~ A lowered concentration of hemoglobin within the blood due in part to dilution. The magnified plasma volume that dilutes the hemoglobin may be a normal consequence of aerobic training

Angular stomatitis ~ Inflammation and cracking of the skin at the corner of the mouth; a clinical of vitamin B complex deficiency

Atrophic gastritis ~ an age-related condition within which the gastric cells of the stomach loses its ability to secrete acid. In severe cases, the ability to create intrinsic factor is additionally impaired

Avidin ~ A polypeptide in raw egg whites hat binds biotin (a vitamin B complex), preventing its absorption. Avidin is destroyed by heat

Beriberi ~ Thiamin-deficiency disease. Symptoms embody muscle weakness, loss of craving, nerve degeneration, and edema in some cases

Biocytin ~ A biotin-lysine complex released from hydrolyzed protein

Biotinidase ~ an enzyme catalyst within the small intestine that releases biotin (B complex vitamin) from biocytin

Carboxylation ~ A reaction that adds a carboxyl group (-COOH) to a substrate, exchanging for a hydrogen atom

Cheilosis ~ Inflammation and cracking of the lips; an indication of riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency

Decarboxylation ~ Removal of a carboxyl group (-COOH) from a molecule. The carboxyl group is then discharged as CO2 (CÓ)

Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFE) ~ A measure of folate intake used to accurately account for the high bioavailability of folic acid taken as a supplement compared with the lower bioavailability of the folic acid found in foods

Dietary Guidelines for Americans ~ The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the muse of federal nutrition policy and are developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as well as Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). These science-based guidelines are meant to cut back the number of American citizens who develop chronic diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and alcoholism

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) ~ A framework of dietary standards that features estimated Average requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

Dietary Standards ~ Set of values for suggested intake of nutrients

Dietary Supplements ~ products taken orally in pill, capsule, powder, gel cap, or other nonfood types that contain one or additional of the following: vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, enzymes, metabolites, or concentrates

Glossitis ~ Inflammation of the tongue; an indication of riboflavin deficiency

Glutathione ~ A tripeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that is involved in the protection of cells from oxidative cellular damage

Glutathione Peroxidase ~ A selenium-containing enzyme that promotes the breakdown of fatty acids that have undergone peroxidation

Hemochromatosis ~ A metabolic disorder that leads to excess iron deposits throughout the body

Homocysteine ~ an amino acid precursor of cysteine and a risk factor for cardiopathy

Macrocytes ~ Abnormally massive red blood cells with short life spans

Megaloblastic Anemia ~ Excess amounts of megaloblasts within the blood caused by a deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

Megaloblasts ~ massive, immature red blood cells created once precursor cells fail to divide ordinarily because of impaired deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis

Microcytic hypochromic anemia ~ Anemia characterized by little, pale red blood cells that lack adequate hemoglobin to hold oxygen; are often caused by a deficiency of iron or vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Myelin Sheath ~ The protecting coating surrounds nerve fibers

Myelinization ~ Development of the myelin sheath, a substance that surrounds nerve fibers

Neural Tube Defect (NPD) ~ A anomaly ensuing from the failure of the ectoderm to develop properly throughout early fetal development

Niacin Equivalents (NE) ~ A measure that includes performed dietary niacin in addition as nicotinic acid derived from tryptophan; 60 mg of vitamin B

Pernicious Anemia ~ A type of anemia that results from an autoimmune- disorder that damages cells lining the abdomen and inhibits B-complex vitamin absorption, resulting in vitamin B complex deficiency

R-Protein ~ A peptide made by the salivary glands that will shield vitamin B12 as it travels through the gastrointestinal tract and into the small bowel

Reducing Agent ~ A compound that donates electrons or hydrogen atoms to a different compound

Seborrheic Dermatitis ~ sickness of the oil-producing glands of the skin; an indication of vitamin B2 deficiency

Spina Bifida ~ a kind of neural tube congenital disorder

Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) ~ S coenzyme of which the nutriment thiamin is a part. It plays a key role in decarboxylation reactions and helps drive the reaction that forms acyl CoA from pyruvate in intermediary metabolism

Tryptophan ~ an amino acid that is a B complex precursor within the body. within the body, sixty milligrams of tryptophane yields around one milligram of nicotinic acid, or one nicotinic acid equivalent (NE)