ISSA Unit 7 - Muscle mechanics
ISSA Unit 7 - Muscle mechanics

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Contents

1: Which bones make up the knee?

Femur
Tibia
Fibular
Patella

2: Which muscles are comprised in the knee?

Semitendinosus
Biceps Femoris
Semimembranosus
Gastrocnemius
Rectus femoris
Vastus Itermedius
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis
Sartorius

3: What are the main actions and secondary actions of the knee joints?

Extension
Flexion
Lateral rotation

4: In what way do the quadriceps and hamstrings work collectively in a lunge?

During flexion, the hamstrings are the agonist and the quadriceps are the antagonist and vice-versa during extension.

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5: Which bones comprise the ankle?

Fibula
Tibia
Talus
Calcaneus

6: Which muscles comprise the ankle?

Fibularis longus
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus

7: Which actions occur at the ankle joint?

Plantarflexion and dorsiflexion

8: Which muscle performs a role in supporting the foot arch?

tibialis posterior

9: Describe the function of the spine

Provides a central column for movement, structural integrity and protects the spinal cord, a major component of the CNS

10: Movements of the spine involve:

anterior flexion, extensions, lateral flexion and rotation.

11: What purpose do the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, and obliques perform in supporting the spine?

These muscles prevent hyperextension and enable spinal flexion.

12: What purpose does the pelvis perform in connection to the “trunk” and lower extremities?

It anchors the large musculoskeletal groups of the trunk and lower body while protecting many vital organs.

13: Describe the connection between the abdominal muscles and hip flexors

Abdominal and hip flexor muscles play an overlapping role with regards to stability with the pelvic girdle acting as the central hub.

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14: Name the rotator cuff muscles

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres Minor
Subscapularis

15: Which bones comprise the shoulder girdle?

Clavicle
Scapula
Acromion
Humerus
Supraspinous fossa

16: Which scapula movement is the shoulder girdle responsible for?

  • Abduction
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Internal Rotation
  • External Rotation
  • Scapular Plane Abduction
  • Horizontal Adduction

17: What muscles work as the primary movers of the arm at the shoulder joint?

pectoralis major, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, anterior fibres of the deltoid, latissimus dorsi and teres major, long head of triceps, posterior fibres of the deltoid.

18: Shoulder impingement may occur from the pinching of which tendon? What exercise should be avoided as a result?

Supraspinatus tendon. Throwing exercises should be done with caution or not at all.

19: In what way do the shoulder girdle and shoulder operate mutually during movement?

The shoulder joint moves the arm while the shoulder girdle moves the scapular for complex multi-plane movement

20: Which muscles are included in the military press?

Most major muscle groups but mainly the deltoids (Medial and Anterior) trapezius, pectoralis major
scapular stabilizers and abdominal group.

21: Which bones make up the elbow?

Humerus, ulna, and radius.

22: The elbow joint is comprised of which anterior and posterior muscles?

Flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, and the palmaris longus.

23: Which bones comprise the radioulnar joint?

Radius and ulna.

24: Which muscles make up the radioulnar joint?

Brachioradialis and Flexor carpi ulnaris.

25: What actions transpire at the radioulnar joint?

pronation and supination.

26: The wrist joint is made up of which bones?

carpal, ulna and radius.

27: Which actions transpire at the wrist joint?

Flexion, extension/hyperextension, adduction, abduction.

28: Which typical injury happens at the elbow joint?

Ulnar Collateral Ligament tear

29: What causes it?

Hyperextension

30: Describe a solution?

Physiotherapy through conditioning of surrounding muscle. surgery in severe cases

31: Which muscles is the wrist comprised of?

The flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, and the palmaris longus.

If you want assistance wrapping your head around this material, make sure to check out Trainer Academy for some awesome ISSA study materials. They have Practice tests, flashcards, audio study guides and much more.

ISSA Unit 7 - Muscle mechanics 1
ISSA Unit 7 - Muscle mechanics 2
ISSA Unit 7 - Muscle mechanics 3

Tyler Read

Tyler Read, BSc, CPT. Tyler holds a B.S. in Kinesiology from Sonoma State University and is a certified personal trainer (CPT) with NASM (National Academy of sports medicine), and has over 15 years of experience working as a personal trainer. He is a published author of running start, and a frequent contributing author on Healthline and Eat this, not that.

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