ISSA Unit 8 – Strength

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength

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Contents

1: What is “strength’ and name its four main sources

Strength is the ability to control resistance through contracting muscles with maximum force and is influenced by:
Structural/anatomical factors
Physiologica/biochemical factors
Psychoneural/psychosocial factors
External/environmental factors

2: Define limit strength and what sort of athlete needs to optimize this

The maximum amount of musculoskeletal force possible in one effort
Powerlifters require optimal limit strength

3: Name the 3 types of limit strength

Eccentric strength, Static strength and Concentric strength

4: Give an instance of each in a provided exercise

Eccentric: lowering phase of any lift (dumbbell curl extension)
Static strength: holding a plank
Concentric strength: lifting phase of resistance training (dumbbell bicep curl flexion)

5: Describe the main distinction between absolute and limit strength

Absolute strength is the strength gained through training alone, Limit strength is the maximal strength achieved through external enhancement

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6: Describe speed strength and its two types

Speed strength is strength efficiently applied over the shortest possible period of time. It is often equated as power and constitutes starting strength and explosive strength.

7: What are the differences between the two types and how are they each used in an exercise?

Starting strength is the ability to recruit motor units instantaneously at the start of the movement
Explosive strength is the ability to exert strength or force as rapidly as possible in a given movement

8: Determine anaerobic strength. What pathway is employed when using this kind of strength?

Force and energy that is produced without the efficient use of oxygen. through the ATP/Cp pathway and the glycolytic pathway.

9: Describe linear strength endurance

Linear strength endurance is the ability to perform repeated, sustained movements

10: What is nonlinear strength endurance?

Non-linear strength endurance is the ability to perform a diverse array of movements at a sustained level of strength/power

11: Describe some measures of cardiovascular efficiency as related to aerobic strength

Low heart rate and high stroke volume.

12: Name the 7 factors of the strength curve

Angle Q
Angle A
Force
Time
Relationship between time and force
Relationship between limit strength and fmax
Amortization phase

13: Explain the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) principle and how it correlates to periodized training

A condition in whereby general reactions of bodies to stress can be classified into 3 phases: Alarm, Resistance, and
Exhaustion. When deciding on periodized exercise, it can be utilized to determine the body’s short and long term affinity to stressors.

14: What are several ways training can cause fatigue?

Training stressors and training stimuli

15: Describe constant resistance with an example of an exercise utilizing this type of equipment

An exercise where weight neither increases nor decreases during execution. Lifting a barbell is an example of this.

16: Describe variable resistance and what principle is essentially correlated to it

Variable resistance is when the resistance load can fluctuate during an exercise movement. an example would be the nautilus machine

17: Describe accommodating resistance and how it deviates from variable resistance

A machine that allows one to exert maximum effort through a full range of motion. Variable resistance devices operate on the theory that the amount of resistance changes to match the leverage changes in your body, accommodating resistance maintains the resistance by controlling the speed of your exercise movement.

18: Describe static resistance and how it may be included in an exercise

Static or isometric resistance relies on holding tension through a fixed position over an extended time for maximal strength adaptation.

19: In what way do bands and chains function and what are the advantages of each regarding exercise?

Bands and chains cause a graduating increase in resistance with an increase in range of motion, causing a gradual increase in muscle fiber recruitment.

20: What are the advantages of callisthenics? Give 3 examples

Callisthenics improve muscular and cardiovascular endurance, overall strength, functional mobility and flexibility.

21: What is the main benefit of dumbbell training in connection to synergistic and stabilizer muscle groups?

dumbbell training, as opposed to barbell training, requires extra control and balance due to uneven distribution of weight and exposure to more planes of movement. this causes higher recruitment of stabilizer and synergist muscles

22: Name some benefits of training with kettlebells?

Increased core stability, endurance strength and power.

23: Describe the correct swing phase of a kettlebell swing?

It consists of a typical squat movement pattern along with rapid arm movements that capitalize on the momentum generated from the initial phase

24: Describe some benefits of dumbbell training?

They allow for synergist engagement at far higher prominence than any other form of resistance or weight. they are easier to set up, handle and use than other resistance apparatus such as barbells or machines. they are more cost-efficient than other

25: Describe 3 dumbbell exercises that employ at least 3 muscle groups

Bicep curl, tricep kickback, shoulder press

26: In what way do adjustability and balance represent a positive and negative role in exercise machines?

In terms of adjustability, machines offer a very quick and simple method of adjustment, however, the adjustable position and load range are often very precise and can limit the potential for maximal effort training and infinitely variable body types. balance through machines is safely maintained via the mechanical structure, this, unfortunately, limits one’s opportunity to engage and develop intrinsic balance and stability through synergist recruitment.

27: Which exercises benefit from an unstable surface?

exercises that recruit core muscle groups and aim to increase strength in synergist groups in order to promote optimized balance and proprioception.

28: What type of exercises do not benefit from an unstable surface?

Exercises designed for maximal strength and hypertrophy don’t benefit

29: What sort of training makes good use of medicine balls?

Plyometric weight training and rehabilitation

30: Describe the 3 main grips and when to use each

supinated grip: Grip in which the palm is facing upwards toward the ceiling.
pronated grip: Grip in which the hand(s) or forearm(s) are rotated so that the palm faces down or back.
neutral grip: Grip wherein the palms face each other.

31: Describe the correct breathing pattern for new trainees vs advanced trainees

New trainees are advised to exhale on exertion, while seasoned trainees can hold breath on exertion.

32: In what way does exhalation play a part in lifting?

It promotes the generation of greater force, accuracy and control.

33: Explain the advantages of warming up prior to exercise and what is the appropriate length?

Warm-up raises the body to be able to perform at an adequate level. it helps ignite vital functions such as breathing and cardiovascular activity, nervous activity, force generation and endurance as well as prepare joints and connective tissue for intense activity and injury prevention.

34: What particular type of exercises don’t benefit a warm-up?

Endurance based activity

35: Explain the necessity of a suitable cooldown and what is the proper length?

A cooldown can help decrease lactic acid accumulation and the subsequent pain associated with that as well as the pain from resultant muscle micro-trauma. a cool down should last between 5-10 minutes.

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 1

36: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

incline db flyers

37: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Pectoralis group

38: What is the point of insertion of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


39: What is the point of origin of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


40: What is the intended action of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?
ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 2

41: Name an alternative exercise for the primary muscle involved in this exercise

Barbell chest press

42: What is the proper grip for the exercise shown above?

Pronated

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 3

43: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

Pull-up

44: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Latissmus dorsi

46: What is the point of insertion of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


47: What is the point of origin of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


48: What is the intended action of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?

49: Name an alternative exercise for the primary muscle involved in this exercise

Lat pull-down

50: What is the proper grip for the exercise shown above?

Pronated

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 4

51: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

French Press

52: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Triceps Brachii

53: What is the point of insertion of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


54: What is the point of origin of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


55: What is the intended action of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 5

56: Name an alternative exercise for the primary muscle involved in this exercise

Triceps Cable Extension with Bar

57: What is the proper grip for the exercise shown above?

Pronated

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 6

58: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

Dumbbell hammer curl on ball

59: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Biceps brachii

60: What is the point of insertion of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


61: What is the point of origin of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


62: What is the intended action of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?
ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 7

63: Name an alternative exercise for the primary muscle involved in this exercise

standing hammer curl

64: What is the proper grip for the exercise shown above?

Neutral

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 8

65: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

Dumbbell shrug

66: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Trapezius

67: Where is the point of insertion of the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Upper: the posterior aspect of the lateral clavicle

68: Where is the point of origin of the main muscle concerned in this exercise?


Upper: base of the skull, occipital protuberance and posterior ligaments of the neck.

69: What is the intended action of the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Upper: scapula elevation and extension of the head at the neck

70: Describe a different exercise for the main muscle concerned in this exercise

Cable bar shrug

71: What is the proper grip for the exercise shown above?

Pronated

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 9

72: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

Stability ball crunch

73: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Abdominal group

74: What is the point of insertion of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


75: What is the point of origin of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


76: What is the intended action of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?
ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 10

77: Name an alternative exercise for the primary muscle involved in this exercise

crunch

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 11

78: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

Seated dumbbell horizontal external rotation

79: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Rotator cuff group

80: What is the point of insertion of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


81: What is the point of origin of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


82: What is the intended action of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?
ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 12

83: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

External rotation at 90-degree abduction

84: What is the proper grip for the exercise shown above?

Pronated

85: Name an alternative exercise for the primary muscle involved in this exercise

Dumbbell horizontal external rotation

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 13

86: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

Seated leg curl

87: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

hamstring group

88: What is the point of insertion of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


89: What is the point of origin of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


90: What is the intended action of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?
ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 14

91: Name an alternative exercise for the primary muscle group involved in this exercise.

Prone hamstring curl

ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 15

92: Which exercise is displayed in the images?

Standing barbell calf raise

93: What is the main muscle concerned in this exercise?

Gastrocnemius

94: What is the point of insertion of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


95: What is the point of origin of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?


96: What is the intended action of the primary muscle involved in this exercise?
ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 16

97: Name an alternative exercise for the primary muscle involved in this exercise

Seated calf raise

98: What is the proper grip for the exercise shown above?

Pronated.

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ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 17
ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 18
ISSA Unit 8 - Strength 19

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