ISSA Unit 6 - Musculoskeletal deviations
ISSA Unit 6 - Musculoskeletal deviations

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1: Describe the advantages of good posture. Describe how to do a self-assessment for postural deviations

Good posture enhances biomechanical efficiency, reduces the risk of injury, and allows for correct organ function. Unrelated to physical activity, good posture inspires a sense of well-being, confidence, and social advantage.

2: Name and describe the 3 abnormal postural deviations

  • Lordosis: an excessive inward curve of the lower spine
  • Scoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
  • Kyphosis: an excessive rounding of the upper spine

3: Circle the relevant postural deviation that corresponds to the chart below

ISSA Unit 6 - Musculoskeletal deviations 1

4: Explain the role(s) of posture and postural deviations in athletic achievement

Explain precisely also why alignment deviations can limit execution

Correct postural alignment is naturally tantamount to optimal athletic performance as it dictates the biomechanical efficiency and performance longevity of an athlete. Postural deviations, therefore, lead to diminished performance potential due to full system misalignment

5: Complete the chart below

ISSA Unit 6 - Musculoskeletal deviations 2

6: Describe the key to obtaining a well-aligned and well-balanced body

The key is to proportionately develop the agonist and antagonist muscle groups in all movement systems of a joint.

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7: What is “tonus?”

The circulatory and movement efficiency of a muscle

8: Name the 3 main parts of the spine as well as the number of vertebrae for each

  • Cervical (7)
  • Thoracic (12)
  • Lumbar (5)

9: Describe the typical ROM of flexion and extension of the spine?

30-40 degrees forward, 15-20 degrees backward

10: Fill in the diagram below

ISSA Unit 6 - Musculoskeletal deviations 3

11: Describe the complications with prolonged sitting

Explain also ways you can mitigate the effects of sitting at work

Long-term sitting can lead to postural deviations and the associated chronic conditions. It can also lead to the tightening of the hip flexors. This can be alleviated by using ergonomically enhanced seating with correct lumbar support and adjustability, such as reclining.

12: Describe how the feet can affect posture

Foot integrity can affect the entire chain of alignment from legs to hips and, eventually, the spine.

13: Describe the consequences of poor posture on the resulting pelvic tilts

In what ways does each tilt affect the human body?

Anterior tilt: muscular weakness in front of the pelvis and thighs lose flexibility, while those behind are generally weak.
Posterior tilt: Weak, tight leg muscles, shortened tendons around pelvic bones
Lateral tilt: back and hip pain as well as unbalanced gait.

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ISSA Unit 6 - Musculoskeletal deviations 4
ISSA Unit 6 - Musculoskeletal deviations 5
ISSA Unit 6 - Musculoskeletal deviations 6

Tyler Read

Tyler Read, BSc, CPT. Tyler holds a B.S. in Kinesiology from Sonoma State University and is a certified personal trainer (CPT) with NASM (National Academy of sports medicine), and has over 15 years of experience working as a personal trainer. He is a published author of running start, and a frequent contributing author on Healthline and Eat this, not that.

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