NASM FNS Chapter 14 – Sports Nutrition: Eating For Peak Performance

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 14 of the NASM FNS

Aerobic ~ pertaining to the presence of or no want for oxygen. the entire breakdown of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water happens solely via aerobic metabolism. The Krebs cycle and electron transport chain are aerobic pathways

Aerobic Endurance ~ The relative ability of the striated muscle to procure an adequate concentration of oxygen from the cardiovascular system and lungs to keep up muscular activity for an extended period of time

ATP-CP Energy System ~ a straightforward and immediate anaerobic energy system that maintains adenosine triphosphate levels. phosphocreatine is hydrolyzed, expelling energy and a phosphate group, which can then be used to make adenosine triphosphate

Carbohydrate Loading ~ Changes in dietary carbohydrates intake and exercise program before competition to maximize glycogen stored within the muscles. it’s acceptable for endurance events lasting sixty to ninety consecutive minutes or longer. additionally referred to as glycogen loading

Cardiac Output ~ the quantity of blood expelled by the heart

Creatine ~ a very important nitrogenous compound found in meats and fish and synthesized within the body from amino acids (glycine, arginine, and methionine)

Creatine Phosphate ~ AN energy-rich compound that provides energy and phosphate groups for the formation of adenosine triphosphate. additionally known as phosphocreatine

Diuresis ~ The formation and secretion of urine

Diuretics ~ medicines or alternative substances that promote the formation and release of urine. Diuretics are given to cut back body fluid volume in treating such disorders as high blood pressure, congestive cardiovascular disease, and edema. both alcohol and caffeine effectively act as diuretics

Ergogenic Aids ~ Substances which will enhance athletic performance

Fast-Twitch (FT) Fibers ~ Muscle fibers that can develop high tension rapidly. These fibers will fatigue quickly, however, are well- suited to explosive movements in sprinting, jumping, and weight lifting

Hyperthermia ~ a way higher than normal body temperature

Lactic Acid Energy System ~ Anaerobic energy system; utilizing glycolysis, it quickly produces energy (ATP) and lactate. additionally known as anaerobic glycolysis

Longitudinal Muscle ~ Muscle fibers aligned lengthwise

Muscle Fibers ~ Individual muscle fibers

Oxygen Energy System ~ a highly complex energy system that needs oxygen. To release adenosine triphosphate, it completes the breakdown of sugar and fatty acids via the TCA cycle and electron transport chain

Palatable ~ Pleasant tasting

Pathogenic ~ Capable of inflicting sickness

Phosphocreatine ~ AN energy-rich compound that provides energy and phosphate groups for the formation of adenosine triphosphate. additionally known as phosphocreatine

Skeletal Muscles ~ Muscles composed of bundles of parallel skeletal muscle fibers under voluntary management. additionally known as striated muscle or skeletal muscle

Slow-Twitch (ST) Fibers ~ Muscle fibers that develop tension much more slowly and to a lesser extent than fast-twitch muscle fibers. ST fibers have high metabolic capacities and are slower to fatigue than fast-twitch fibers

Soda Loading ~ Consumption of bicarbonate (baking soda) to lift blood hydrogen ion concentration. The intent is to extend the capability of buffer acids, therefore delaying fatigue. additionally referred to as bicarbonate loading

Sports Anemia ~ A lowered concentration of hemoglobin within the blood due in part to dilution. The magnified plasma volume that dilutes the hemoglobin may be a normal consequence of aerobic training

Anemia ~ Abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin within the bloodstream; which can and is often caused by impaired synthesis of red blood cells, enhanced destruction of red cells, or very significant loss of blood

Amenorrhea ~ Absence or abnormal stoppage of menstruation in a female; usually indicated by the absence of 3 to 6 consecutive female menstrual cycles

Female athlete Triad ~ A syndrome in young female athletes that involves disordered feeding, amenorrhea, and lowered bone density

Infantile anorexia ~ Severe feeding difficulties that begin with the introduction of solid foods to infants. Symptoms include persistent food refusal for more than one month, malnutrition, parental concern about the child’s poor food intake, and important caregiver-infant conflict throughout feeding

Anorexia of Aging ~ Loss of food craving and wasting related to advanced age

Anorexia Athletica ~ disorder of eating related to competitive participation in athletic activity

Anorexia Nervosa ~ a disorder of eating marked by a prolonged decrease of food cravings and refusal to eat, resulting in self-starvation and excessive weight loss. It results in part from a distorted body image and intense worry of turning into fat, typically connected to social pressures

Binge ~ Consumption of a really large amount of food in an exceedingly short time (e.g., 2 hours) often accompanied by a loss of management over how much and what it consumed

Binge Eaters ~ people who habitually consume a very great amount of food in a very short amount of time (e.g., 2 hours) and lose the ability to control what quantity and what’s eaten

Binge-Eating Disorder ~ a disorder of eating marked by recurrent episodes of binge intake and a sense of loss of control. The diagnosis relies on an individual’s having a median of at least 2 binge-eating episodes per week for 6 months

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) ~ A disorder of eating in which a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance happens to be primary symptom

Body Image ~ an individual’s mental construct of his or her physical appearance, created from many various influences

Bulimia Nervosa ~ A disorder of eating marked by consumption of huge amounts of food at one time (binge eating) followed by behavior such as self-induced puking, use of laxatives, excessive exercise, fasting, or alternative practices to avoid weight gain

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ~ A disorder in which an individual makes an attempt to alleviate anxiety by pattern behavior and continuous repetition of certain acts

Disordered eating ~ an abnormal change in feeding pattern associated with an illness, a stressful event, or a need to enhance one’s health or appearance. If it persists it will likely result in an eating disorder

Diuretics ~ medicines or alternative substances that promote the formation and release of urine. Diuretics are given to cut back body fluid volume in treating such disorders as high blood pressure, congestive cardiovascular disease, and edema. both alcohol and caffeine effectively act as diuretics

Diuresis ~ The formation and secretion of urine

Eating Disorders ~ A spectrum of abnormal feeding patterns that eventually might endanger an individual’s health or increase the danger for other diseases. Generally, psychological factors play a key role

Emetics ~ Agents that induce regurgitation

Enemas ~ Infusions of fluid into the rectum, sometimes for cleansing or other therapeutic functions

Female athlete Triad ~ A syndrome in young female athletes that involves disordered feeding, amenorrhea, and lowered bone density

Infantile anorexia ~ Severe feeding difficulties that begin with the introduction of solid foods to infants. Symptoms include persistent food refusal for more than one month, malnutrition, parental concern about the child’s poor food intake, and important caregiver-infant conflict throughout the feeding

Laxatives ~ Substances that promote evacuation of the bowel by increasing the majority of feces, lubricating the enteric wall, or softening the stool

Night-Eating Syndrome (NES) ~ a disorder of eating during which a habitual pattern of interrupting sleep to eat is the primary symptom

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ~ A disorder in which an individual makes an attempt to alleviate anxiety by pattern behavior and continuous repetition of certain acts

Orexin ~ a kind of hormone in the brain which may have an effect on food consumption

Purge ~ evacuation of the gastrointestinal tract by self-induced regurgitation and/or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas