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Chapter 4 NASM study guide
Important definitions to learn
- Metabolism: This is the process where energy is made available. It is the accumulation of chemical and physical processes by which its material substance is created, destroyed and maintained.
- Bioenergetics: This is the study of how energy transforms within living systems.
- Exercise metabolism: This is the total of all the bodily processes from the stress that exercise produces.
- Substrates: The substance that is acted on by an enzyme.
- Carbohydrates: An organic compound that is the primary supporting tissue for plants.
- Glucose: This is a sugar that can come in many different forms. It occurs primarily in tissues, fluids, and fruits. Primary end product after the digestion of carbohydrates.
- Glycogen: This is a polysaccharide that is tasteless and white and is the primary carbohydrate storage in mammals. It occurs primarily in the muscles as well as in the liver.
- Fat: This is a type of organic compound that is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and ether. Fats are comprised of lipids and our greasy to the human touch.
- Triglycerides: These are three fatty acids that connect to a glycerol. This makes up most of the fat storage in the human body.
- Protein: Multiple linked amino acids (20+) in a linear sequence that form one or more polypeptide chain.
- Gluconeogenesis: When glucose is formed from a non-carbohydrate such as fats or protein. This pathway produces the most ATP.
Energy for work
- Adenosine triphosphate: The transfer and energy storage unit inside of the cells of the body. When the chemical bonds that hold together ATP break, energy is released for work such as the contraction of a muscle. When this bond breaks it leaves behind ADP (Adenosine diphosphate).
- Adenosine diphosphate: This is a compound of high energy from which ATP is formed.
- Beta (B)-oxidation: This is the first process that breaks down fatty acids. It includes the oxidation of beta carbons and removing to fragments of carbon from the fatty acid.
- EPOC (Excess Post-exercise oxygen consumption): Metabolism will elevate after higher intensity exercises. The reason that you see high-intensity interval training as a successful method for shedding fat. High-intensity work will increase EPOC.