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Chapter 3 NASM Study Guide
The cardiorespiratory system: Composed of the respiratory and cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system: Blood vessels, blood, and the heart
Arteries: Carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body
Veins: Return blood to the heart from the rest of the body
Stroke volume: The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction
Cardiac output: Heart rate × stroke volume
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Sinoatrial (SA) node: The “pacemaker” of the heart because it initiates the heartbeat
Typical heart rate for an adult: 70-80 BPM
The atria and ventricles:
The heart has two pairs of different chambers. These chambers are called the atriums and ventricles. Here are the functions of the chambers.
The right atrium receives blood coming from the body, while the left atrium receives the blood (oxygen-rich) that comes from the lungs and the heart.
The right ventricle has thinner walls because it only needs to pump blood a short distance back to the heart and the lungs. On the other hand, the left ventricle has much thicker walls and is a much higher pressure pump because it is required to push blood to the rest of the body.
The functions of blood:
- Protection: The white blood cells help to protect your body against diseases, and blood clotting helps with fluid loss.
- Regulation: Blood helps keep a stable body temperature, electrolyte, and water level, as well as pH.
- Transportation: The primary function of blood is transporting nutrients and oxygen to the body’s cells. It also takes away CO2 and various wastes from the cells and delivers hormones to specific tissues.
The respiratory pump:
These are the thoracic and abdominal structures that help with the contraction and expansion of the lungs.
The muscles that comprise the respiratory pump are:
- For inhalation: The Scalene muscles, the pack minor, the sternocleidomastoid, and the diaphragm.
- For exhalation: The internal intercostals and the abdominal muscles
Here is the cycle of the respiratory pump (venous return):
- The thoracic cavity expands new
- The pressure within the pleural cavities drop
- This pulls air into the lungs.
- It also brings blood into the IVC and the right atrium from the smaller veins that exist in the abdominal cavity.
- The pressure in the pleural cavities rise
- This forces blood into the right atrium
- This is important, especially for heavy exercises.
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