ISSA Study Guide
Post 6 of 32
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Post 6 of 32 in the ISSA Study Guide
1: What is “biomechanics?”
Biomechanics is the scientific system of movement as it relates to musculoskeletal action.
2: Describe the fundamental principles of stability
Stability is the ability to maintain a balanced state and control the body through movement as desired
The larger the base of support, the greater the stability
The lower the centre of mass/gravity, the greater the stability
3: What is the correct foot position and weight assignment during these exercises:
Back squat: Shoulder width apart
Bench press: feet under hips, weight on the forefoot
4: Name and describe the 4 elements of force. Describe the angle of muscle pull
Magnitude: the amount of force applied
Direction: the trajectory of application from start to end
Point of application: the area where force is applied
Line of action: the path from application that indicates the direction of force.
5: Describe Newton’s first law of motion
A physical object’s state of motion or motionlessness remains constant unless an external force is applied (inertia)
6: Describe the difference between resting and moving inertia?
Resting inertia is a resting objects resistance to change unless influenced by force. moving inertia is a moving objects resistance towards changing speed and direction unless influenced by force.
7: Describe what is meant by “range of motion”. What is its significance
the capacity of movement about a joint from full flexion to full extension. ROM determines flexibility and optimal technique
8: Describe Newton’s second law of motion as it relates to mass and acceleration
Force is produced by accelerating a mass through a change in velocity
9: Explain “work” and how it is applied in an exercise
Work is defined as the amount of force over a given distance
10: Define “power” and how it is used in a weight training exercise
Power is the amount of force over a given period of time
11: Describe Newton’s third law of motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
12: Describe a lever in relation to the body
A lever is a bone that turns about the rotational axis of a joint
13: Name and describe the three levers in the body and give an example of each
>First-class lever: fulcrum is placed at the centre of the lever making each end equidistant. force and load are placed at opposite ends. e.g. the head and top of c-spine
>Second class lever: fulcrum is placed closer to one end of the lever. force is applied furthest away from fulcrum and load is placed between force and fulcrum: e.g. rising on one’s forefoot
>Third class lever: fulcrum is placed on one end of the lever while both force and load interact on the same point on the other end. E.g. shoulder and forearm.
14: Describe 2 muscular-structural arrangements in the body and give examples of each in relation to different joints
Pulley System: Lat pull-down, shoulder joints
Wheel and axle: throwing motion, shoulder joints
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15: Define torque with regards to exercise
The magnitude of the rotational force of a lever about a fulcrum. E.g. the force generated by muscle contraction about a joint by an extremity.
16: Define gravity with regards to exercise
Force applied per unit of mass. the downward resistance created by free weights.
17: In what way can maximum resistance be applied when using free weight?
By adjusting the body to allow maximum movement potential of the weight.
18: Explain “centre of gravity” and describe how it correlates to movement
Center of gravity is the point of equal distribution of force due to gravity and is influenced by base of support, mass, height, position and state of motion of the body. Center of gravity influences passive stability.
19: What is the ideal position of the line of gravity be when doing strength exercises?
Line of gravity should form a dividing line between the base of support.
20: Describe the correlation between kinesthesis and vision
Kinesthesis is your ability to recognise your body’s and body parts’ placement in relation to your immediate environment and the objects that occupy it (also known as spacial awareness). vision is the ability to guide your positional awareness through visual reference points. Vision creates the raw data necessary for Kinesthesis.
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