ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology

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1: What is the musculoskeletal system?

The body system responsible for biomechanical action and comprises skeletal muscle groups, connective tissue, and bone/skeleton.

2: What are the 4 functions of the skeletal system in our body?

  • Structural Integrity/Biomechanical Function
  • Production of blood
  • Storage of fat and minerals
  • Organ Protection

3: What is the total number of bones in the following:

  • Overall skeletal system: 206
  • Axial skeleton: 80
  • Appendicular skeleton: 126
ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 25
4: Label the above skeletal chart

5: What are the three layers that constitute the bone?

Compact, cancellous, osteoblast

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6: What are the five bone categories?

Flat, long, short, irregular, and sesamoid

7: What are the 6 joint categories?

Pivot, hinge, saddle, plane, condyloid, and ball-and-socket

8: Label the joints in this chart

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 26

9: What is a “tendon?”

Fibrous connective tissue joins muscle to bone.

10: What is a”joint?”

The separation between two or more corresponding bones is configured to allow appropriate movement and is connected by ligaments.

11: Explain the role of the muscular system in our bodies

Move and maintain position

12: What are the 3 types of muscles in the body?

  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac
  • Smooth

13: Fill in the chart below:

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 27

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 28

14: Fill in the following diagrams:

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 29
ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 30
ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 31
ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 32
ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 33

15: What is”origin?”

Origin is the fixed attachment point of muscle to the bone via tendon connection

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16: Define “insertion.”

Insertion is a dynamic attachment point of muscle to the bone via tendon and changes with muscle contraction

17: Mark the insertion and origin of the rectus abdominis muscle

Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action on the line provided below.

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 34
intended action: spinal flexion

18: Mark the insertion and origin of the triceps brachii muscle

Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action on the line provided below. (Hint Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with the intended action.)

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 35

19: Mark the insertion and origin of the pectoralis major muscle

Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with the intended action.)

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 36

20: Mark the insertion and origin of the latissimus dorsi muscle

Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint; Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with the intended action.)

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 37
intended action:

21: Mark the insertion and origin of the deltoid muscle

Indicate origin with an “O” And insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with the intended action.)

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 38
intended action:

22: Mark the insertion and origin of the trapezius muscle

Indicate origin with an “O” And insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with the intended action.)

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 39

23: Mark the insertion and origin of the rotator cuff muscles

Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with the intended action.)

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 40

24: Mark the insertion and origin of the quadriceps muscles

Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with the intended action.)

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 41
Muscle: Rectus femoris
intended action: hip flexion, knee extension


Muscle: Vastus medialis
intended action: Knee extension


Muscle: Vastus lateralis
intended action: knee extension


Muscle: Vastus intermedius
intended action: knee extension

25: Mark the insertion and origin of the hamstring muscles

Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action on the lines provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with the intended action.)

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 42
Muscle: Biceps femoris
intended action: Extension of the hip, flexion of the knee, internal rotation of the knee


Muscle: Semitendinosus
intended action: Extension of the hip, flexion of the knee, internal rotation of the knee


Muscle: Semimembranosus
intended action: Extension of the hip, flexion of the knee, internal rotation of the knee

26: Complete the chart below to explain skeletal muscle contraction

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 43

27: What are the six major muscle fiber arrangements?

  • Fusiform arrangement
  • Upennate
  • Bipennate
  • Multipennate
  • Triangular
  • Parallel

28: Determine the muscle fiber arrangements below with examples.

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 44
ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology 45

29: What are the 4 categories of muscle fiber types and their nature?

Type I, Type IIa, Type IIx, and Type IIc

30: What is hypertrophy about the training effect?

Hypertrophy is the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis catalyzed by resistance training or a general adaptation to increased mechanically resistive forces in daily life. It results in increased muscle mass.

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Tyler Read - Certified Personal Trainer with PTPioneer

Tyler Read


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