ISSA Unit 3 – Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology

ISSA Unit 3 - Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology

1: What is the musculoskeletal system.

The body system responsible for biomechanical action and is comprised of skeletal muscle groups, connective tissue and bone/skeleton.

2: What are the 4 functions of the skeletal system in our body.

Structural Integrity/Biomechanical Function
Production of blood
Storage of fat and minerals
Organ Protection

3: What is the total number of bones in the following:

overall skeletal system: 206
axial skeleton: 80
appendicular skeleton: 126

4: Label the above skeletal chart

5: What are the three layers that constitute the bone.

Compact, cancellous, osteoblast

6: What are the five bone categories?

flat, long, short, irregular, and sesamoid

7: What are the 6 joint categories.

pivot, hinge, saddle, plane, condyloid, and ball-and-socket

8: Label the joints in this chart.

9: What is a “tendon”.

Fibrous connective tissue joining muscle to bone.

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10: What is a”joint”.

The separation between two or more corresponding bones, configured to allow appropriate movement and connected by ligaments.

11: Explain the role of the muscular system in our bodies.

Produce movement and maintain position

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12: What are 3 types of muscle in the body.

skeletal
cardiac
smooth

13: Fill in the chart below:

14: Fill in the following diagrams:

15: What is”origin.”

Origin is the fixed attachment point of muscle to bone via tendon connection

16: Define “insertion.”

Insertion is a dynamic attachment point of muscle to bone via tendon and changes with muscle contraction

17: Mark the insertion and origin of the rectus abdominis muscle, Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action on the line provided below.

intended action : spinal flexion

18: Mark the insertion and origin of the triceps brachii muscle. Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I”. Indicate the intended action on the line provided below. (Hint Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with intended action.)

19: Mark the insertion and origin of the pectoralis major muscle. Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with intended action.)

20: Mark the insertion and origin of the latissimus dorsi muscle. Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint; Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with intended action.)

intended action:

21: Mark the insertion and origin of the deltoid muscle. Indicate origin with an “O” And insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with intended action.)

lntended action:

22: Mark the insertion and origin of the trapezius muscle. Indicate origin with an “O” And insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with intended action.)

23: Mark the insertion and origin of the rotator cuff muscles. Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with intended action.)

24: Mark the insertion and origin of the quadriceps muscles. Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action in the line provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with intended action.)

Muscle: Rectus femoris
intended action: hip flexion, knee extension


Muscle: Vastus medialis
intended action: Knee extension


Muscle: Vastus lateralis
intended action: knee extension


Muscle: Vastus intermedius
intended action: knee extension

25: Mark the insertion and origin of the hamstring muscles. Indicate origin with an “O” and insertion with an “I.” Indicate the intended action on the lines provided below. (Hint: Refer to Unit 8 if you have trouble with intended action.)

Muscle: Biceps femoris
intended action: Extension of the hip, flexion of the knee, internal rotation of the knee


Muscle: Semitendinosus
intended action: Extension of the hip, flexion of the knee, internal rotation of the knee


Muscle: Semimembranosus
intended action: Extension of the hip, flexion of the knee, internal rotation of the knee

26: Complete the chart below to explain skeletal muscle contraction.

27: What are the six major muscle fiber arrangements?

Fusiform arrangement
Upennate
Bipennate
Multipennate
Triangular
Parallel

28: Determine the muscle fiber arrangements below with examples.

29: What are the 4 categories of muscle fibre types and their nature?

Type I, Type IIa, Type IIx and Type IIc

30: What is hypertrophy in relation to the training effect?

Hypertrophy is the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis catalyzed by resistance training or a general adaptation to increased mechanically resistive forces in daily life. it results in increased muscle mass.

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