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Chapter 17 – Plyometric and Speed Training

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    Chapter Objectives:

    • Give details on the mechanics and the physiology of plyometric and speed enhancing exercises.
    • Know the phases of the stretch-shortening cycle.
    • Discover the different roles of plyometric and speed training.
    • Give device on the proper use of equipment during plyometric exercise performance.
    • Make safe and effective plyometric and speed training programs.
    • Give instruction on the correct plyometric and speed training technique and recognize common errors.

    Plyometric Mechanics and Physiology

    Power is the term we use to define the relationship of speed and force. 

    We have two proposed models to explain the increased production of muscular power.

    Mechanical Model of Plyometric Exercise

    In this model, energy known as elastic energy is stored after some rapid stretch and then released during the following concentric action by the muscle. This will increase the total force production of the concentric contraction.

    The function of the musculotendinous unit is related to three mechanical components: the series and parallel elastic components, and the contractile component.

    The series elastic component, or SEC, is the primary contributor for force production when we are plyometrically exercising. It is mainly made of tendon and very little muscular components.

    The SEC acts as a spring when the muscle is stretched in an eccentric contraction, and it stores the energy. The muscle then uses this stored energy as soon as concentric contraction starts, thus improving the total force produced. 

    If a concentric action does not happen immediately, the stored energy is lost via heat.

    Neurophysiological Model of Plyometric Exercise

    This model deals with a change in the force-velocity characteristics of the contractile components of the muscle that are affected during a stretch.

    The contractile force s increased with the stretch flex’s use.

    Stretch reflex is an involuntary response in the body when an external stimulus causes a rapid stretch within the muscle.

    The response is a signal going to the spine and telling the return message to give a concentric contraction of the muscle to offset the eccentric stretch.

    It responds at the same rate of stretch in the muscle.

    The best example of this is the reflex test that the doctor uses when they tap your patellar tendon and it causes the knee jerk we all know. The faster the stretch, the greater the contraction.

    Stretch-Shortening Cycle

    The SSC, as its also called, is a model used to explain the SEC and its ability to store energy and stimulate the stretch reflex that will maximally increase in muscle recruitment over the smallest amount of time possible.

    There are three distinct phases.

    Phase 1 is the eccentric phase where there is a stretch of the agonist muscle. During this we have energy being stored, muscle spindles stimulated, and a signal is sent to the spinal cord.

    Phase 2 is the amortization phase, and this is when there is a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases. In this phase the nerves synapse within the spinal cord and a signa is sent to the stretched muscle.

    Phase 3 is the concentric phase where the shortening occurs in the muscle fibers of the agonist muscle. Here, elastic energy is released from the SEC and the stretched muscle is stimulated by a nerve.

    When to Use Plyometric Exercise

    Plyometric Training and Sport Performance

    The plyometric components need to mimic the sport of choice for the client.

    Producing more muscular force at faster speeds will always increase sports performance. 

    Plyometric Training and Work Performance

    This increase in performance may apply to jobs also. When looking at jobs that require physical exertion of some kind like police officers, firefighters, or maybe military training, this is, of course, most beneficial.

    Plyometric Exercise and Injury Prevention

    It is always important with plyometric exercise to know how to decrease the risk of injury since it is greater with plyometrics. 

    The chance of injury always decreases following plyometric training programs, as research shows. 

    Clients develop the ability to control their joints within the kinetic chain when performing an SSC and focusing on biomechanics and the correct technique.

    The focus of training should be put on proper landing and jumping techniques. 

    Joint stability is improved greatly with this training and thus the ability to control the body. This decreases the risk of injury in joints, especially in the knee. It can also reduce falls that could fracture bones.

    The eccentric control portion of plyometric training has also shown to be a big part of the training.

    Safety Considerations

    Age and Maturity

    Plyometric training puts a lot of stress on the body, so it is really important that the client’s health isn’t compromised in any way.

    Current research points to safety and may benefits for plyometric training in youth.

    Youth bodies are very moldable and adept to learning motor skills, so they will benefit from the aspects of plyometric training. We see improvements in bone mass and decreases in sports injuries.

    Adolescents will develop bone strength, balance, and coordination.

    The other population to worry about, and typically more so, is the aging population. Older adults have decreasing bone strength and even degeneration within their joints, so it may be most beneficial to avoid any kind of high intensity plyometric training they might do.

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    So, since high intensity plyometrics are out for older adults, we look at the use of low intensity plyometrics to ensure safety and eventually lead to moderate intensities. 

    For all ages it isn’t just important to be physically mature, but also psychologically and mentally. 

    Posture, Flexibility, and Stability

    Many drills require clients to move in nontraditional directions. This requires proper support for the client. 

    It is important for the client to be able to hold the half squat position correctly, as it is involved in most moves. Once it is held properly and then progressed to a double leg squat, low intensity plyometrics can be done. 

    To progress further, the single leg squat should be perfected next. Like with double leg drills, you must hold on one leg for 30 seconds, because the drills require similar strength.

    Strength

    Strength levels should be considered when introducing plyometrics.

    For plyometrics with the lower body, we need to have a one rep max on the squat at 1.5 times the weight of the person.

    For plyometrics with the upper body, clients over 220 pounds should bench their 1RM equal to their weight, and for those less than 220 pounds, they should have a 1RM 1.5 times their weight.

    5 Clap pushups is an alternative way to measure upper body readiness.

    These guidelines are a good rule of thumb and something to shoot for, but they are necessary always for low and moderate plyometric activities.

    Speed

    Speed of movement is a more specific requirement and is there due to the need for quick movements.

    Clients typically should be able to do 5 reps of 60% of their body weight in 5 seconds for the lower body plyo training.

    For upper body plyo training, they should typically be able to do 5 bench presses with 60% of their weight in 5 seconds.

    Landing Position

    Landing technique is needed for the maximum effectiveness of the exercise and most importantly the minimized risk of injury.

    The proper form should be taught for all of the exercises.

    Medical History

    We should review the forms of exercise done, joint structures, posture, body type, and any old orthopedic injuries before the start of plyometrics.

    Physical Characteristics

    Client size matters a lot with plyometrics. 

    Clients over 220 pounds are at a much higher risk. High volume and high intensity plyometrics should thus be avoided.

    Equipment and Facilities

    Landing Surface

    These need to have proper shock absorbing features but also not be soft enough to increase transitions between eccentric and concentric. 

    Harder surfaces can be something that clients will progress to for greater rates of energy return.

    Training Area

    Space requirements always depend on the drill, but the least required is typically 33 yards of straightaway and up to 109 for the running and bounding drills.

    The optimal height is 9.8 – 13.2 feet.

    Equipment

    The boxes and depth jumps need to have sturdy surfaces and not be slippery. 

    Boxes are 6 – 42 inches tall and 18 by 24 inches of landing space. 

    Plastic cones are flexible.

    Stairways, bleachers and stadium steps are checked to meet requirements of safety like surface with the boxes and sturdiness.

    Medicine balls are easy to grip, durable, and have different weights.

    Proper Footwear

    Footwear provides good ankle support, lateral stability, and wide, nonslip soles.

    Supervision

    Clients must be closely looked at when doing plyometrics. The importance is on the improper form, as injury risks are higher. 

    Plyometric Program Design

    Needs Analysis

    These factors help with client analysis.

    Age – Is the client predisposed to injury?

    Training experience and current training level – Have they trained with resistance? If they have, what types of exercises? What about a plyometric program? When?

    Injury History – Is the client injured? Have they had any that will affect the ability of the client?

    Physical testing results – What abilities relate to their muscular power production?

    Training goals – What does the client want out of this?

    Incidence of injury in a client’s job or chosen activity – What is the risk of injury in the client’s activity of choice?

    Mode

    Lower Body Plyometrics

    These are appropriate for any sport or nonathletic activity or occupation that needs muscular power production or quick direction changes.

    This training will allow more force production in shorter amounts of time.

    Upper Body Plyometrics

    These are required by several sports or activities like golf, baseball, softball, and tennis.

    These are not done as often as lower body plyometrics and are less studied.

    Intensity

    This is the amount of effort done by the muscles, connective tissues, and joints during the performance of exercises. It is controlled by drill type and the covered distance.

    Intensity is always kept lower for people that are just starting a program.

    Frequency

    This is the number of plyometric sessions done in a week and depends on the age of the client, their ability, and their goals.

    Frequency and intensity are proportionally inverse. When frequency goes up, the intensity goes down.

    Recovery

    Instead of having a focus on frequency, a lot of trainers instead look at the recovery time, as its very important with plyometric training due to the increased muscular effort and muscle recruitment.

    Volume

    This is the total work done within a single workout session and it typically is seen as the number of reps or sets that are done in the session. We also use the term contacts per session. For plyometric bounding, we will express it as distance covered.

    Beginners don’t need to exceed 30 minutes in time for their plyometric sessions.

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    Progression

    As with all training programs, progression is important and must follow the principles of progressive overload (the increase in frequency, volume, and intensity).

    Warmup

    Plyometric sessions need to begin with both general and specific warmups. This is due to the higher skill level required for these movements.

    Speed Training Mechanics and Physiology

    All sports success depends on the speed of execution for movements. Being able to do the ability given within the least amount of time is always valuable.

    Speed Training Definitions

    Speed-strength is the application of maximum force at a high velocity.

    Speed-endurance is the ability to keep running speed over extended times.

    Sprinting Technique

    Posture

    When accelerating, the body leans forward about 45 degrees for 13 – 16 yards. After the distance, the client will move to a 5 degree lean with max speed being reached.

    It is viewed as a controlled fall.

    Leg Action

    The driving phase and the recovery phase are highlighted here. 

    The driving phases sees the lead foot being driven by the extensors and landing on the lateral aspect of the forefoot, in front of the clients’ center of gravity. The quadriceps contract to prevent excess knee flexion and loss of elastic energy. The glutes and hamstring then contract in order to pull themselves over the center of mass and the client then plantar flexes the foot once the hip crosses the foot. Ground contact time is minimal.

    The recovery phase starts when the client’s foot leaves the ground. The ankle is dorsiflexed immediately the great toe is extended. This gets ready for ground contact and optimal pushing. 

    Arm Action

    Each elbow is at 90 degrees. Movement is front to back from the shoulder and minimally in the frontal plane. This aggressive backward hammering occurs in opposition to the legs in order to balance the body and give momentum for the legs.

    Acceleration

    It takes the 13 – 16 yards for the person to accelerate properly with the right technique. The focus in the first few yards is to increase stride length and velocity. The foot strike happens behind the body due to the initial lean.

    Speed Training Program Design

    Mode

    The mode is determined by the characteristics of speed that the drill is designed to improve.

    There are three areas of focus: form, stride length and stride frequency.

    Intensity

    This is the physical effort needed during the execution of a drill and it is controlled by the drill type and the distance covered.

    Frequency

    This is the number of speed training sessions done in a week and depends on the goals of the client.

    Recovery

    These speed training drills involve max efforts, and thus will require adequate recovery to ensure you can give max effort with each rep.

    Volume 

    This refers to the number of reps and sets done during a session and is typically seen as the distance covered.

    Progression

    This will follow the principle of progressive overload just like the other resistance training methods.

    Warmup

    These speed training sessions, since they are included with the plyometric training, will always have both a general and a specific warm up to ensure proper readiness for these movements.

    Speed Training Safety Considerations

    Pretraining Evaluation

    For the reduction of injury risk when doing speed training, clients need to know the proper form and have adequate levels of strength and flexibility.

    Physical Characteristics

    It is necessary to find and review joint structure, posture, body type, and previous injuries before beginning a speed training program.

    Previous spine, lower extremity, and upper extremity injuries and abnormalities will increase the risk of injury when doing a speed training program.

    Technique and Supervision

    Proper movement patterns and sprint technique should be demonstrated and monitored throughout exercise.

    Exercise Surface and Footwear

    For speed training drills it is important for the landing area to have adequate shock absorption just like with the plyometric training. 

    Use footwear with good ankle support and wide, nonslip soles.

    Combining Plyometrics and Speed Training With Other Forms of Exercise

    Resistance, Plyometric, and Speed Training

    Combining these three training types requires careful consideration for optimal recovery and the maximization of performance.

    In general, for the lower body, only one of the training types should be done in one day.

    It is appropriate to combine lower body resistance training with upper body plyometrics, and upper body resistance training with lower body plyometrics. 

    Heavy resistance training and plyometrics within the same day is not the best idea.

    Traditional resistance exercises may be combined with plyometrics to enhance muscular power.

    Plyometric and Aerobic Exercise

    Many sports will need both power and some form of aerobics.

    Multiple types of training should be combined to prepare the clients for their sports.

    If you want assistance wrapping your head around this material, make sure to check out Trainer Academy for some awesome NSCA study materials. They have Practice tests, flashcards, and a fantastic study guide. They even offer an exam pass guarantee.

    NSCA CPT Chapter 17 – Plyometric and Speed Training 1
    NSCA CPT Chapter 17 – Plyometric and Speed Training 2
    NSCA CPT Chapter 17 – Plyometric and Speed Training 3

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