NCSF Personal Training Study Guide Chapter 6 – Physical Activity and Risk for Disease 5

If you have not yet signed up for the NCSF CPT certification, receive a big discount here.

Get your copy of the NCSF CPT exam cheat sheet. It helps immensely for studying for the exam.

Make sure to check out Trainer Academy for premium NCSF CPT study materials. They will reduce study time by 50% and have an exam pass guarantee. Read my full review on them here. You can save $100 on their MVP study system with the code: PTPSUB

Chapter Goals:

  • Know the information regarding the relationship between the three aspects of physical activity, the risk for cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality.
  • Find how physical activity affects coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, and hypertension.
  • Know the lifestyle factors to consider when looking at risk for heart disease.
  • Know how physical activity affects other conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer.
  • Explain the impact physical activity has on our skeletal and mental health.

Physical Activity and Risk for Disease

The amount of inactive people in the population of united states proves to be a significant burden on societal health.

The CDC estimates around 200,000 people die from causes stemming from inactivity each year in the US, and globally around 5 million.

Physical activity is very important, as it is associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality, coronary artery disease, hypertension, cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Physical Activity Relationship to Mortality Risk

The greatest impact on death rates comes from changes from low fitness levels to moderate fitness levels. This shows that some level of physical activity will always be better.

44% lower death rates have been found in people who change from low to moderate fitness levels.

Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease

Heart disease and stroke are both found to be the most common cardiovascular diseases and make up the first and fifth leading causes of death.

Essentially, these represent one death every 40 seconds that pass.

Any form of physical activity is going to have a dramatic reduction in the risk people have for developing cardiovascular disease.

So, it is safe to say that a strong inverse relationship exists between both physical activity and mortality rate.

Coronary Heart Disease

There is a small risk for acute coronary events in people with advanced coronary pathology and exercise participation. However, the inverse relationship between CVD and physical activity is so strong that it negates this and makes exercise still strongly recommended for these patients.

Many people assume that high blood pressure and cholesterol levels come up in adulthood, but this starts in childhood and progresses later in life.

1 in 250 kids shows high cholesterol levels and plaque buildup.

Obesity and other physical inactivity conditions are prevalent in kids, which plays into the need for physical activity.

When discussing cholesterol, we must know some different terms for things in the body and items to look for on blood tests.

LDLs, or low-density lipoproteins, are a complex of lipids and proteins that transport cholesterol from the liver to the body’s cells. These are considered to be the “bad cholesterol” that people mention, but they are needed, and it is a poor choice of words.

Exclusive PTP CPT Offers


Gold Standard Cert
NASM Gold Standard Personal Trainer Certification - Save 25&percnt off
Most Popular Cert
ISSA - Most Popular Online Personal Trainer Certification 3 Certs for
Best Study Materials
TA - Trainer Academy - Best Study Materials for Personal Trainer Certification Online - See MVP discount
A Good Option
ACE Certification- A Good Fitness Course Online Option - 25&percnt off
A Good Option
NCSF Certification - A Good Option - Save 25%
Best CPT for you?
Best CPT For You? Take the Personal Trainer Certification Online quiz and Get a Personalized Recommendation Just for You

HDLs, or high-density lipoproteins, are another complex of lipids and proteins that transport cholesterol. Still, for these, they are transporting cholesterol to the liver and removing it from the body cells. These are considered to be the good cholesterol that people look at.

VLDL, or very-low-density lipoproteins, are like the LDLs we discussed, but they also assist in moving triglycerides and other lipids throughout the body.

Atherogenic is used to describe dynamics that promote the formation of fatty plaques in the arteries.

Some factors that have been shown to lower the risks for heart disease are:

Lowering your cholesterol and blood pressure when evidence shows them to be elevated.

Eating a diet lower in salt, refined sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.

Consume a fiber-rich diet via fresh fruits and vegetables and heart-healthy fats.

Exercise regularly (at least 150 minutes a week)

Avoid excessive intake of alcohol and do not smoke

Ensure the safe use of medications and any over-the-counter drugs

Educate oneself on appropriate stress management

Lose weight and body fat if overweight

Exercise and Atherosclerosis

Exercise and physical activity are proven to reduce the risks of atherosclerosis in several key ways.

The integrity of the vessel walls is one important factor. This is improved with the benefits of the added activity.

The number of circulating LDLs in long-term exercise conditions is a key response with chronic cardio being done.

Another part to consider is the reactions we must exercise and the positive stress we cause. This releases hormones that allow for better health and reduces atherosclerosis risk.

Myocardial Ischemia

Ischemia begins when the heart needs an amount of oxygen it cannot get. This could cause a severe blockage which could lead to a heart attack.

Cardiac fibrosis is a thickening of the heart valves or the walls of the heart, and this is when the body is getting closer to heart failure.

Some common medications mentioned to help with cardiovascular disease are:

  • Diuretics
  • Beta-blockers
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Angiotensin antagonists
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Nervous system inhibitors
  • Vasodilators

Thrombosis

A thrombus, also known as a blood clot, cuts off the oxygen supply to a section of the heart.

This will generally appear slowly over time until it essentially feels like an acute thing attacking your heart.

The warning signs of a pulmonary embolism are:

Exclusive PTP CPT Offers


Gold Standard Cert
NASM Gold Standard Personal Trainer Certification - Save 25&percnt off
Most Popular Cert
ISSA - Most Popular Online Personal Trainer Certification 3 Certs for
Best Study Materials
TA - Trainer Academy - Best Study Materials for Personal Trainer Certification Online - See MVP discount
A Good Option
ACE Certification- A Good Fitness Course Online Option - 25&percnt off
A Good Option
NCSF Certification - A Good Option - Save 25%
Best CPT for you?
Best CPT For You? Take the Personal Trainer Certification Online quiz and Get a Personalized Recommendation Just for You
  • Unexplained sudden onset of shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or discomfort that worsens when you take a deep breath or when you cough
  • Feeling lightheaded or dizzy, or fainting
  • Rapid pulse
  • Coughing up blood

Some common risk factors for deep vein thrombosis:

  • Inheriting a blood-clotting disorder
  • Prolonged bed rest and lack of movement
  • Injury or surgery
  • Pregnancy
  • Birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy
  • Malignant varicose veins
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Smoking
  • Heart failure
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • A personal or family history
  • Age over 60

Stroke and Physical Activity

Strokes are the fifth most seen cause of death and contribute to the amount of disability seen.

Strokes are like heart attacks, but this lack of oxygen occurs within the brain instead of the heart.

The two primary causes of stroke are vascular blockages or artery ruptures.

Ischemic stroke results from an obstruction within a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. This is the most seen case of strokes.

Hemorrhagic stroke results from a weakened blood vessel rupture (aneurysm) in or on the brain’s surface. This is the most common cause when considering prolonged high blood pressure throughout life.

An important consideration to think about is that smokers are at an increased risk for just about any form of stroke or health condition.

Hypertension and Physical Activity

There are five stages of blood pressure that we look for:

Normal blood pressure is when the systolic number is less than 120 and the diastolic is less than 80.

Elevated blood pressure is a systolic number between 120 – 19 and a diastolic less than 80.

High blood pressure stage 1 is considered to be 130 – 139 systolic and 80 – 89 diastolic. It can be either of these or both.

High blood pressure stage 2 is a systolic of 140 or more and a 90 or higher diastolic. It can be either of these or both.

A hypertensive crisis is considered higher than 180 systolic and more than 120 diastolic. It can be either of these or both. This requires immediate consultation.

Hypertension and raised blood pressure are major factors in many cardiovascular pathologies.

Some health problems and complications seen to come with hypertension are:

  • Organ damage
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Aortic aneurysms and dissection
  • Renal failure
  • Retinopathy

Around one-third of all people from both genders suffer from high blood pressure.

Obesity and Physical Activity

Obesity is one of the greatest health and economic issues that we see affecting the American population today.

Genetics and medications may play a role, but behaviors seem to be the biggest problem and they are completely controllable.

The reductions in the total activity that people get each day and the increase in poor diets have led to the rise in these problems.

Obesity is essentially an excessive amount of body fat that leads to many problems in the body.

Diabetes and Physical Activity

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that looks at abnormalities in the body’s ability to manage its glucose.

There essentially is insulin resistance, or the inability to make it in the body.

Type one diabetes is less common, and it is genetic. This is controlled by taking insulin to allow the body to use glucose properly.

The real problem is the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, which is not genetic and is almost completely caused by poor diet and physical inactivity.

Some factors like family history can play a role in people being more inclined to becoming obese, but it is not as large a role as diet and exercise.

Osteoarthritis and Physical Activity

This is the most common form of arthritis, but it is a term that covers a variety of disorders leading to problems in the joints of the body.

Osteoarthritis is arthritis that involves the degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone, commonly associated with the previous injury, but starting during middle age; the condition causes pain and stiffness, especially in the hip, knee, and thumb joints, when bones begin to run directly against each other.

The repair and damage cycle causes the osteophytes to form. These are bone spurs and cysts that form because of remodeling.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease that causes notable joint inflammation, painful deformities, and/or significant immobility over time.

Osteoporosis and Physical Activity

This is a progressive bone disease that happens as there is a loss of bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue over time.

Three factors usually cause this: deficient bone mass, reduced bone mass after 30 years of age, and further decreased peak bone mass after 50.

With this disease, the bones start to become brittle and frail, and the bones will more easily fracture. This is often seen more in the elderly population.

Females are at a much higher risk for this disease as they age.

Osteoporosis can be overcome with both physical activity and a diet to counteract bone loss.

Cancer and Physical Activity

Cancer is viewed as the most feared disease of all and is the second leading cause of death in the US.

We do know that there is a significant link between physical activity levels and decreased risks for cancer, as well as a link between body fat levels and increased risk for cancer.

Mental Health and Physical Activity

Millions of people are affected by depression, anxiety, and subjective feelings of self-worth, which altogether affect our sense of well-being that we have.

These problems can all be countered, to some degree, by physical activity and the boost in good stress accompanying it.

It has been shown that the type of activity engaged in and the frequency of the activity all play a role in the mental shifts that occur.

Alzheimer’s Disease

This is a neurodegenerative disorder, or type of dementia, often occurring during older age, that causes progressive, irreversible mental deterioration, memory loss, diminished cognition, and eventual loss of independence due to generalized brain degeneration.

Tyler Read - Certified Personal Trainer with PTPioneer

Tyler Read


All Posts

PTPioneer Editorial Integrity


All content published on PTPioneer is checked and reviewed extensively by our staff of experienced personal trainers, nutrition coaches, and other Fitness Experts. This is to make sure that the content you are reading is fact-checked for accuracy, contains up-to-date information, and is relevant. We only add trustworthy citations that you can find at the bottom of each article. You can read more about our editorial integrity here.

Ask me a question and I will reply ASAP

40 NCSF Practice Q's

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The ISSA Exam

18749

NCSF CPT exam cheat sheet

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The CSCS Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The ACSM Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NCSF CPT Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The ISSA Nutritionist Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NCSF CPT Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NASM CNC Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NASM PES Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NASM CES Exam

18749

Get the top 5 Tips for Passing the ACE CPT

18749

Get the top 5 Tips for Passing the NASM CPT

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NSCA CPT Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The ACE Exam

18749

Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NASM Exam

18749