fbpx
0%
NCSF Personal Training Study Guide Chapter 3 – Kinetic Chain Function, Dysfunction, and Corrective Exercise 1

If you have not yet signed up for the NCSF CPT certification, receive a big discount here.

Get your copy of the NCSF CPT exam cheat sheet. It helps immensely for studying for the exam.

Make sure to check out Trainer Academy for premium NCSF CPT study materials. They will reduce study time by 50% and have an exam pass guarantee. Read my full review on them here. You can save $100 on their MVP study system with the code: PTPSUB

Post Content

    Chapter Goals:

    • Know the concepts of form and force closure.
    • Discuss the kinetic chain.
    • Know the differences between phasic and postural muscles serving to facilitate stability.
    • Know the concepts of function.
    • Understand muscular units and postural distortions.
    • Know the basics of corrective exercise.

    Local and Global Systems

    Muscles and joints constantly interact to help move and stabilize the body in physical activity.

    Major Factors Influencing the Transfer of Force

    The neural proficiency of muscle activation is the first factor in the ability to transfer force.

    The second factor is the health and efficiency of the associated bones, joints, and ligaments.

    The third major factor that influences the transfer of force would be added support of associated muscles and fascia.

    Some major definitions to know for this start of the chapter:

    Form closure – the efficiency of the structural aspects of articulating segments. Mainly this is made of the connective and skeletal tissues.

    Force closure – the support from soft tissues that helps to keep the integrity of the joint’s position.

    Kinetic chain – this is the chain of force transfer across the moving segments of the body.

    Local muscle systems – the muscles needed for joint stability and neutral positioning.

    Global muscle systems – the muscles, typically larger ones, that are needed for motion and stability that functions in a phasic way.

    Isometric contraction – this is the type of muscle contraction that has no change at all in the angle of the joint.

    Local Stabilizer Summary:

    ROLE – used to increase the stiffness of the muscles and control movements of segments.

    FUNCTIONS – for the control of neutral joint positions. The contraction of the muscles does not have a change in length or movement.

    CHARACTERISTICS – these fulfill the functions of proprioception and activity is independent of the movement’s direction.

    EXAMPLE MUSCLES – transverse abdominus, pelvic floor, diaphragm, deep lumbar, multifidus, soleus, vastus medialis, and posterior fibers of the internal obliques.

    Global Stabilizer Summary:

    ROLE – these are used for generating force and controlling the ranges of motion.

    FUNCTIONS – these are used to control the inner and outer ranges of movements along with tending to be the eccentric contractors for decorating loads of momentum or rotational control.

    CHARACTERISTICS – the activities with these muscles are dependent on direction, and their activation is not continuous.

    Exclusive PTP Offers


    Gold Standard Cert
    Save 25%
    Most Popular Cert
    3 Certs for 1
    A Good Option
    50% off
    Best Study Materials
    See MVP discount
    Best online PT course
    $100 Off
    The Top PT Software
    Get Free Trial

    EXAMPLE MUSCLES – quadratus lumborum, psoas major, external and internal obliques, rhomboids, trapezius, levator scapulae, rectus abdominus, and hip adductors.

    Global Mobilizers Summary:

    ROLE – used for the generation of torque and production of movement.

    FUNCTIONS – used for the production of movement in joints, especially when the sagittal plane is involved. They tend to contract in a concentric fashion and absorb shock from most impacts.

    CHARACTERISTICS – their activities are dependent on direction, and activation is not continuous.

    EXAMPLE MUSCLES – external oblique, rectus abdominus, erector spinae, gastrocnemius, hamstrings, glute max, hip adductors, and latissimus dorsi.

    The Integrated Model of Function

    The isolation of muscle groups and particular muscles is going to be useful for the movement of joints, remedies for imbalances in strength, and recovering from injury, but the body never functions in these isolated ways.

    The body instead prefers to integrate mechanisms for the management of static positioning and movement.

    A main role of the exercise professional is for the reduction in risk of injury; thus, the promotion of musculoskeletal function is an important foundation to instill in programming.

    There are three common physical components to look at in terms of human function:

    • How well a joint is aligned, known as form closure.
    • The ability for the connective tissues to keep joint integrity, known as force closure.
    • The level of proficiency of the neuromuscular system to anticipate and react to things through motor control.
    • Emotion could be a fourth component. This is relating to the psychological conditions that play roles in efficient movement.

    If someone is suggested to be functional, this could mean these things:

    • The musculoskeletal system keeps proper symmetry for the right form and force closure.
    • Activation is both orderly and efficient with proper anticipatory signals.
    • The local stability balance is achieved through the right antagonist and agonist’s muscle relationships acting on each joint.
    • The overall force development happens without the constriction of the effective force couples, and this results in the conservation of energy in static and dynamic activities.

    Muscular Units

    The Inner Unit

    This is the collective group of local spinal and pelvic stabilizing muscles. The muscles here will be the transverse abdominus, diaphragm, posterior internal oblique, pelvic floor, and the multifidus.

    The Outer Unit

    The ability for these muscles to work effectively, there needs to be stability in the previous inner unit.

    The posterior oblique sling system is made up of the lats, glute max, and the thoracolumbar fascia, which works to extend the hamstrings overbroad ranges.

    The anterior oblique sling system is on the opposing side of the posterior oblique sling system, and it is including the abdominal obliques, the adductors of the thigh, and the abdominal fascia.

    Deep longitudinal sling system has the erector spinae, deep lamina of the thoracolumbar fascia, multifidus, and the sacrotuberous ligament.

    The lateral sling system is the final system of the outer unit and it has the abductors of the hip, the quadratus lumborum, and the thigh adductors.

    The relationship between the inner and outer unit gives excellent evidence for including functional-based activities being a good idea.

    Functional-based activities are those that are aimed at improving the body’s ability for efficient management of aspects of daily living like physical activity, without undue resistance.

    Common Postural Distortions and Muscle Imbalances

    Some of the common causes of chronic postural distortion and/or muscular imbalances:

    • Practicing poor posture at work or home
    • Sedentary behaviors
    • Repetitive training actions
    • Poorly devised exercise programs
    • Incorrect instruction or technique
    • Injury-related movement compensations

    Some common postural distortions are:

    Winged scapula – this is shown with a lifted and outward rotation of the position of the scapula. The scapula will seem to protrude out posteriorly.

    Upper crossed syndrome – this is a distortion of the upper body that shows with a forward head, raised and internally rotated shoulders, and an exaggerated thoracic curve.

    Kyphosis – excessive convex curves of the thoracic spine presenting as a bowed or rounded back.

    Lordosis – excessive concave or inward curve in the lumbar spine.

    Lower cross syndrome – lower body distortion shown with an unwanted anterior tilt of the pelvis.

    Categories of Postural Distortions

    We have the categories of upper body postural distortions, lower body postural distortions, and lower body distal extremity distortions.

    The segmental problems along with their related issues and limitations:

    Forward Chin –

    The overactive muscles are the trapezius, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae.

    The underactive muscles are the serratus anterior, mid-low traps, deep cervical muscles.

    There is a major contribution here for upper cross and upper thoracic humps, limiting of the spine function, reductions in the shoulder complex efficiency, along with range of motion.

    Exclusive PTP Offers


    Gold Standard Cert
    Save 25%
    Most Popular Cert
    3 Certs for 1
    A Good Option
    50% off
    Best Study Materials
    See MVP discount
    Best online PT course
    $100 Off
    The Top PT Software
    Get Free Trial

    Kyphotic exaggeration –

    This is also known as upper cross. The overactive muscles are the upper traps, pec muscles, subscapularis, lats, and teres major.

    The underactive muscles are the rhomboids, mid-lower traps, teres minor, serratus anterior, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid.

    The limitations are shoulder complex dysfunction, impingement, and disturbances to the kinetic chain.

    Lumbo-pelvic-hip postural distortion –

    This is also called lower cross syndrome.

    The overactive muscles are the calves, hip adductors, hamstrings, erector spinae, rectus femoris, latissimus, teres major.

    The underactive muscles are the glutes, abdominals, and spinal stabilizers.

    The limitations are hamstring strains, groin strains, and low back pain.

    Lumbo-pelvic-hip postural distortion –

    This is also called fixed lateral pelvic tilt.

    The overactive muscles are the quadratus lumborum, iliopsoas, adductors, gluteus med, and the TFL.

    The underactive muscles are the glute med, TFL, quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, and the adductors.

    These depend on the high and low sides.

    The limitations present would be unilateral low and mid back pain, hamstring strains, adductor strains, IT band syndrome, lateral hip pain.

    Distal extremity postural distortion –

    The overactive muscles are the calves, peroneals, posterior tibialis, adductors, iliotibial band, iliopsoas, and rectus femoris.

    Possible limitations are plantar fasciitis, shin splints, and patellar tendonitis.

    Corrective Exercise

    Quantifying the Level of Dysfunction

    The prioritization model is what is used to assess risk for training programs. This is a strategy that investigates the areas with the greatest level of need first as a priority in the training program.

    The needs analysis is an important inventory of adaptation needs for individuals as found through screening and evaluation protocols. It can include identification, organization, and prioritization of physiological needs.

    We usually find the primary limitation present, which is the significant issue that may involve pain, and impedes overall function and performance. It needs immediate correction and emphasis. An example would be upper cross syndrome.

    The secondary limitations are important to look at also. These are the issues that may reduce one’s ability to perform tasks but does not cause major discomfort. An example would be slight tightness of the hamstrings.

    NCSF Personal Training Study Guide Chapter 3 – Kinetic Chain Function, Dysfunction, and Corrective Exercise 2
    NCSF Personal Training Study Guide Chapter 3 – Kinetic Chain Function, Dysfunction, and Corrective Exercise 3
    NCSF Personal Training Study Guide Chapter 3 – Kinetic Chain Function, Dysfunction, and Corrective Exercise 4

    About The Author

    Leave a Comment

    Your email address will not be published.

    NCSF CPT exam cheat sheet

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The CSCS Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The ACSM Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NCSF CPT Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The ISSA Nutritionist Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NCSF CPT Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NASM CNC Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NASM PES Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NASM CES Exam

    18749

    Get the top 5 Tips for Passing the ACE CPT

    18749

    Get the top 5 Tips for Passing the NASM CPT

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NSCA CPT Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The ACE Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The NASM Exam

    18749

    Get The Sectret Cheat Sheet For The ISSA Exam

    18749
    Scroll to Top