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- Have a firm understanding of the skeletal system and the characteristics of bones.
- Know the various types of joints and their accompanying functions.
- Know the types of muscle tissues.
- Know the types of muscle contractions.
- Be able to recognize the planes of movement.
- Know the many grip styles used during exercise.
The body is referred to as a living machine, and both machines and the body are made up of a frame with many levers that act on moving parts and structural joints.
The length of time the machine can perform at a proficient level is determined by the integrity of its parts, the efficiency of the structural system, and the economy of the applicable movements.
Composition of Bones
The skeletal system is the body’s frame that we discussed. It will give the body the shape, protection, and support needed.
The skeletal has mineral components that allow it to have rigidity and protein components that give it the needed tension.
Bone tissues are hardened with calcium salts, so they have around 98% of the calcium in the body.
Some of the other significant components of bone would be phosphate, carbonate, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and collagen.
Homeostasis is the body’s desire to stay in a constant, desirable range of conditions so that equilibrium in the physiological systems is present.
Bone mineral density is the mineral content in a given bone volume. We use this as a measure of bone health and for the potential diagnosis of diseases like osteoporosis.
Osteopenia is a pre-disease condition in which the bone mineral density is considered lower than normal for someone’s age and sex but not yet low enough to meet the standard for osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a bone disease in which bone mineral density causes the structures to become brittle and weak, usually leading to fractures or disability. This can come from hormonal changes, sedentary lifestyles, or energy, calcium, or vitamin D deficiencies.
The skeleton is a system of levers allowing the body to maintain postural control, perform movements in varied ranges, and protect our vital organs.
We have many types of bones in the body.
The skeleton starts as cartilage and is slowly replaced by actual bone as it is matured. This process is called ossification.
During normal maturation, bones increase in size and get remodeled by bone removal and subsequent replacement. The epiphyseal plates do this at the epiphysis of long bones.
Epiphyseal plates are transverse cartilage plates near the ends of long bones, and they are responsible for the main growth during childhood and adolescence.
Bone mass is represented as the surface area of bone and total tissue volume.
An important factor in maintaining bone mineral density is by doing weight-bearing activity. This puts pressure on the bones and tells the body to structure them accordingly.
Weight-bearing activity is defined as any activity in which the body’s weight must be supported while doing the movements. These are favored for their bone mass, strength, and resilience increases.
A good note for trainers is that resistance training has been seen to be a potential concern for risking damage to the bone growth process in adolescence.
A joint is the intersection of two bones.
These joints will allow for various forms of movement, but it entirely depends on the type of joint.
Synovial joints are a type of joint that uses synovial fluid to reduce frictional stresses and allow for considerable movement between the associated articulating bones.
Hyaline cartilage is a tough and elastic connective tissue found in many parts and joints of the body. It allows for minimal movement, depending on the surrounding anatomy.
Fibrous joints are the ones not intended to move, or maybe just a little.
Cartilaginous joints unite articular surfaces with hyaline cartilage, allowing for slight movement. It can also have fibrocartilage, which allows the greater ability for movement.
This makes the three main types of joints fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial.
Most joints in the skeleton are synovial joints, as these will accommodate motion and daily activity needs.
This section will mostly have relevant definitions.
Joint capsules are connective tissue enclosures surrounding specific joints and comprise fibrous and inner synovial membranes.
The periosteum is a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones, and it serves as the site of attachment for tendons to connect the muscles to bones.
Bursa is small fluid sacs that reduce friction between bony and connective tissues when moving.
Ligaments are the tough fibrous bands of connective tissue that are used to support the internal organs and attach the adjacent bones at articulation sites.
Tendons are the tough fibrous bands of connective tissue that connect muscles to bones.
The types of Synovial joints we have are:
Proprioceptors are special sensory receptors found inside the joints and connective tissues that signal the body about position and movement, thus managing muscle and tendon tension.
Hypermobility in joints is defined as movement ability that is past the normal, healthy ranges.
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How Joints Work
The joints move when internal and external forces are applied to the skeleton.
Voluntary movements will have the coordinated muscles contracting to produce internal force, which acts on the bone through the tendon.
The internal tension is monitored through the Golgi tendon organ, a special kinesthetic receptor near the muscle-tendon junction. It sends reflexive signals to the spinal cord to regulate muscle tensions.
Types of Muscle Tissue
There are three types of muscle tissue in the muscular system. These are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Each of them has its own functions.
Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle attached to the skeleton to facilitate movements by way of force put on bones and joints. It is a voluntary form of muscle action.
Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary muscle that is striated but mononucleated and found only in our heart.
Smooth muscle is the last type, which is involuntary, not striated, and found in the walls of organs and vascular structures.
Skeletal Muscle Architecture
The skeletal muscle will be organized into several layers. We will define these in their order from the outermost to the innermost.
Epimysium is a dense collection of collagen fibers covering the muscle’s surface.
Perimysium is a layer of tissue under the epimysium surrounding the bundles of fibers.
The endomysium is the last layer, and it is a thin sheath of connective tissue that separates and covers the individual muscle fibers.
A bundle of fibers is called a fascicle. This is made of muscle fibers, which are again separated by the endomysium.
The sarcolemma is the external lamina of reticular fibers, and it is essentially an extension of the muscle fiber.
The mitochondria are known as the cell’s powerhouse since it is responsible for the most energy production and metabolic processes within the cells.
Myofibrils are the sectional units within each muscle fiber with bundles of myofilaments.
Myofilaments are long protein elements shaped like cylinders that allow for the contraction of the muscles.
How Muscles Contract
The skeletal muscles must contract to produce internal tensile and compressive forces.
The central nervous system sends signals that stimulate the muscles through electrical and chemical signals, which cause the shortening and production of tension.
Muscle fibers are arranged like factories, with each small structure having its own function to create tension.
The sliding filament theory helps to explain what happens at a more molecular level. This involves the multi-step interaction between actin and myosin during muscle contractions.
A motor neuron is a nerve cell in the PNS that propagates electrical impulses to the working musculature to regulate contractions and bodily movement.
A motor unit is a motor neuron and all the fibers it innervates.
The neuromuscular junction is a junction where a motor neuron and muscle cells interact through chemical-electrical impulses, facilitating the stimulation of contracting muscle cells.
The excitation-contraction coupling is the process where an action potential propagates across the sarcolemma, and this triggers the release of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate muscular contraction.
Adenosine triphosphate is the main energy source in muscle cells, and this comes bout through many different metabolic processes.
Muscle fibers can either produce maximum force or no force at all. This is known as the All-or-none principle.
So, the amount of force produced is equal to the number of stimulated fibers and the frequency of these stimulations.
To produce the tension needed for movement, groups of motor units are stimulated as the CNS directs.
Generally, we see motor units working together in a tag-team fashion with alternating fire.
Force production is increased when there are three things:
- Increased firing rate
- Increased recruitment
- Improved synchronicity
Types of Muscle Contractions
Isotonic – tension says while the joint angle changes. This is seen in most activities that include concentric and eccentric parts.
Isometric – tension is created, but n changes occur in joint angles. This often happens in the stabilizing muscles to regulate body segment positioning.
Isokinetic – this shows the constant speed of movement, regardless of the applied force of the muscle.
Eccentric is a muscle contraction where the resisting force is more than the applied muscular force, which means the muscle will lengthen as it contracts.
Concentric – this is a muscle contraction where the working tissues apply more force than the applied resistance, causing the muscle to shorten and overcome the resistance.
Muscle Fiber Types
The type of muscle fiber recruited for the particular contraction depends on the force you need for your desired outcome.
We have three different types of muscle fibers: type I, type IIA, type IIX
Type I fibers are slow-twitch fibers that are considered to be oxidative and possess the lowest level of the power output of the three. They are the most fatigue-resistant and well suited for long-distance or time aerobic events.
Type IIA fibers are thein between fibers. These are considered fast-twitch, oxidative-glycolytic fibers that pass intermediate power output capabilities, intermediate fiber diameter, and moderate resistance to fatigue. These are more present in strength and power activity and also partly in prolonged work. This makes them very versatile.
Type IIX fibers are fast-twitch glycolytic fibers with the highest output of power, the largest sized fibers, and lower fatigue resistance. They give the most support during strength and power events.
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Anaerobic means the metabolic process of energy production will not require any oxygen.
Aerobic means the metabolic process of energy production where the presence of oxygen is needed.
Fiber Type Distribution
This is, for the most part, predetermined, and there is no great way to change these concentrations.
Positional Lines and Movement Planes
We have three planes of motion and three axes of rotation that occur in these planes.
Sagittal plane – this is the plane of movement split by the body’s midline and putting the body into left and right halves.
Frontal plane – is the plane of movement where we split the body with the midaxillary line, which breaks the body into front and back halves.
Transverse plane – this is the plane of movement that breaks the body into its top and bottom halves.
Spatial Terms to Know
Anatomical position – is a referenced posture used in anatomical descriptions where the subject stands erect and with their feet parallel, arms adducted and supinated, palms facing toward the front.
Midline – this is the median plane of the body.
Anterior axillary line – this line is at the crease of the axilla or the underarm.
Midaxillary line – is a perpendicular line that we draw down from the axilla’s apex.
Anterior – we use this to refer to placing before or in front.
Posterior – we use this to refer to a location behind a part or to the rear of the structure.
Ventral – we use this to refer to the same as anterior.
Dorsal – we use this to refer to the same as posterior.
Proximal – this is considered to be something situated closest to the point of attachment.
Distal – this is considered to be something furthest from the point of attachment, like a limb or a bone.
Medial – this is when something is at, near, or in the center.
Lateral – this is when something is situated or extending away from the medial plane of the body.
Ipsilateral – relating to the same side of the body
Contralateral – relating to the opposing side of the body
Superficial – shallow proximity about some surface
Deep – extending inward about the surface layer
Anatomical Movement Terms
Flexion – to bend, hinge joint flex by bringing the bones closer. Ball-and-socket joints have the limb move anterior to the midaxillary.
Extension – this means to straighten or extend.
Lateral flexion – spinal movements that go to the sides and occur in the neck and trunk.
Protraction – is the movement of a structure toward the anterior surface in a straight line.
Retraction – this is the movement back to anatomical position.
Dorsiflexion – this is the movement of the ball of the foot toward the shin.
Plantarflexion – this is the movement of the foot toward the plantar surface.
Pronation – is the unique forearm rotation that crosses the radius and ulna.
Supination – is the unique opposing rotation of the forearm where the radius and ulna uncross.
Inversion – turning the ankle so the plantar surface of the foot faces medially.
Eversion – turning the ankle so the plantar surface of the foot faces laterally.
Abduction – moving away from the midline.
Adduction – moving to the midline.
Hyperextension – is an extension of the joint past the average range of motion.
Ulnar deviation – joint action at the wrist that causes the hand to move medially towards the little finger in the frontal plane
Radial deviation – Joint action at the wrist that causes the hand to move laterally towards the thumb in the frontal plane.
External rotation – this is where the articulating bones rotate away from the body’s anatomical position.
Internal rotation – this is where the articulating bone rotates toward the body’s anatomical position.
Circumduction – Circular movement
Elevation – superior movement
Depression – inferior movement
Horizontal abduction – movement from the midline in the transverse plane
Horizontal adduction – the movement to the midline in the transverse plane
Rotation – the turning of structures around their axis
There are over 600 muscles that work together throughout our bodies. Some of these are voluntary, and some of these are not.
Spine and Neck
The human body’s vertebral column, or the spine, is put into five independent parts with their own cooperative functions.
Regarding the bone breakdown of the spine, we have 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, the sacrum, and the coccyx.
We have four major spine curves that help us absorb shock, move properly, and keep our posture.
Neutral spine is the term we use for the proper general posture of the spine.
Lordosis is a noted exaggeration in the lordotic curve of the spine, and it can lead to posture issues and injuries over time.
Kyphosis is an exaggerated kyphotic curve in the spine, which may lead to posture problems or injuries.
The primary spine and trunk muscles to know are the rectus abdominus, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominus, erector spinae group, and the quadratus lumborum.
The pelvis has a close relationship with the spine.
There are issues to be informed about, including different forms of pelvic tilt.
Anterior pelvic tilt – A forward rotational movement of the iliac crests of the pelvis, originating from the lumbosacral joint, which impacts the curvature of the spine.
Posterior pelvic tilt – A backward rotational movement of the iliac crests of the pelvis originating from the lumbosacral joint, which impacts the curvature of the spine.
The shoulder joint is called the glenohumeral joint, and it is a ball-and-socket joint allowing for more movement than any other joint in the body.
There are four main muscles for the shoulder, and they form the rotator cuff.
These four muscles can be remembered by the word SITS. These muscles are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis.
The other three muscles to note with the rotator cuff are the deltoid, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi.
The shoulder girdle is a joint complex that includes the joints between the sternum and clavicle and the clavicle and scapula.
There are four muscles to note for this area: the trapezius, rhomboid major, pectoralis minor, and levator scapulae.
This hinge joint in the arm allows for extension and flexion.
The main muscles to note and know about are the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachioradialis, and brachialis.
This is where the radius and ulna of the forearm come to form a pivot joint and then give the ability to supinate or pronate the hand.
The movements of the wrist happen in three planes.
The main muscles here are the flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, and the extensor carpi ulnaris.
The hip movements happen at the articular surface of the acetabulum and the femoral head. The hip’s joint capsule is very dense and gives great strength and stability.
The main muscles of this part of the body are the psoas major, iliacus, glute max, glute med, glute min, tensor fascia latae, piriformis, and quadratus femoris.
The relationship of movement here is like the elbow. It is another hinge joint.
The main muscles here are the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, sartorius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor Magnus, and pectineus.
This slightly more complicated hinge joint allows for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion.
This is one of the most injured joints, with ankle sprains being the top injury.
The main muscles acting on this joint are the gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, peroneus tertius, peroneus brevis, and peroneus longus.
We see some common deformations of the foot, like flat and hollow feet.
The rest of this chapter covers the primary exercises for the body’s many joints. This covers the resistance-focused exercises that are used for strength purposes. It is important to know how to perform each of these.