NASM FNS Chapter 2 – Nutrition Guidelines and Assessment

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 2 of the NASM FNS

Adequate Intake (AI) ~ The nutrient intake that seems to sustain an outlined nutritionary state or another indicator of health (e.g., rate of growth or traditional circulating metabolic nutrient values) in a very specific population or subgroup. AI is employed once there’s inadequate scientific proof to determine an EAR

Anthropometric Measurements ~ Measurements of the physical characteristics of the body, for instance, height, weight, head circumference, girth, and skinfold measurements. anthropometric measurements are notably helpful in evaluating normal growth of infants, children, and adolescents and in determining body composition

Biochemical Assessment ~ Assessment by measurement of a nutrient or its metabolites in one or additional body fluids, like blood and urine, or in body waste. additionally known as a laboratory assessment

Daily Values (DVs) ~ one set of nutrient intake standards developed by the Food and Drug Administration to represent the wants of the “typical” consumer; used as standards for expressing nutrient content on food labels

Diet History ~ Record of food intake and ingestion behaviors that features recent and long-term habits of food consumption. Done by a skilled interviewer, the diet history is the most comprehensive sort of dietary intake information collection

Dietary Guidelines for Americans ~ The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the muse of federal nutrition policy and are developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as well as Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). These science-based guidelines are meant to cut back the number of American citizens who develop chronic diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and alcoholism

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) ~ A framework of dietary standards that features estimated Average requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

Dietary Standards ~ Set of values for suggested intake of nutrients

Enrich ~ to supplement vitamins and minerals lost or diminished throughout food processing, notably the addition of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and iron to a grain product

Exchange Lists ~ Lists of foods that in nominative portions provide equivalent amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and energy. Any food in an Exchange List is substituted for any other without markedly affecting macronutrient intake

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ~ The federal agency liable for ensuring that foods sold within the united states (except for eggs. poultry, and meat, which are monitored by the USDA) are safe, wholesome, and labeled properly. The Food and Drug Administration sets standards for the composition of some foods, inspects food plants, and monitors imported foreign foods. The Food and Drug Administration is an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)

Food groups ~ classes of similar foods, like fruits or vegetables

Food Records ~ elaborate info concerning day-to-day feeding habits; usually includes all foods and beverages consumed for an outlined period, typically three to seven consecutive days

Food Label ~ Labels required by law on nearly all prepacked foods and having 5 requirements: (1) a statement of identity; (2) the net contents (by weight, volume, or measure) of the package; (3) the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; (4) an inventory of ingredients; and (5) nutrition info

Fortify ~ Refers to the addition of vitamins or minerals that weren’t originally present in a food

Health Claim ~ Any statement that associates a food or a substance in a food with a disease or health-related condition. The Food and Drug Administration authorizes health claims

Nutrient Density ~ an outline of the wholesomeness of foods. Foods high in nutrient density are people who offer substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and comparatively few calories; foods low in nutrient density are people who supply calories however relatively little amounts of vitamins and minerals (or none at all)

Nutrition Assessment ~ a measurement of the nutritionary health of the body. It will include anthropometrical measurements, biochemical tests, clinical observations, and dietary intake as well as medical histories and socioeconomic factors

Nutrition Facts ~ a part of the food label that states the content of certain nutrients inside a food in a standard manner prescribed by the Food and Drug Administration. By law, Nutrition Facts are required to appear on nearly all processed food product within the United States of America

Overnutrition ~ The long-term consumption of an excess amount of nutrients. the foremost common kind of overnutrition in the U.S. is due in part to the regular consumption of excess calories, fats, saturated fats, and sterols

Skinfold Measurements ~ a technique to estimate body fat by a measure with calipers the thickness of a fold of skin and subdermal adipose/fat

Bioavailability ~ A measure of the extent to that a nutrient becomes accessible to the body once it has been ingested and therefore is ready and available to the tissues

Bioflavonoids ~ Naturally occurring organic plant chemicals, particularly from citrus fruits, that cut back the permeability and fragility of capillaries

Dietary Supplements ~ products taken orally in pill, capsule, powder, gel cap, or another nonfood type that contain one or additional of the following: vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, enzymes, metabolites, or concentrates

Free Radicals ~ temporary, extremely reactive chemicals typically derived from oxygen-containing compounds, which might have detrimental effects on cells, particular deoxyribonucleic acid and cell membranes

Functional Food ~ A food which will provide a health benefit beyond that of basic nutrition

Herbal Therapy (Phytotherapy) ~ The therapeutic use of herbs and alternative plants to promote health and treat disease

Isoflavones ~ Plant chemicals that include genistein and daidzein and should have positive effects on cancer and heart disease. additionally known as phytoestrogens

Lycopene ~ one among a family of plant chemicals, the carotenoids. Others included in this huge family are alpha-carotene and ß carotene

Malabsorption Syndromes ~ Conditions that lead to imperfect, inadequate, or otherwise disordered GI absorption

Megadoses ~ Doses of a nutrient that are ten or more times the suggested quantity

Nucleic Acids ~ A family of over 25,000 molecules found in chromosomes, nucleoli, mitochondria, as well as cytosol of cells

Orthomolecular medicine ~ The preventative or therapeutic uses of high-dose vitamins to treat illness

Phytochemicals ~ Substances in plants which will possess health-protective effects, even though they’re not essential in all cases

Phytoestrogens ~ Plant compounds that have weak estrogen activity within the body

U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) ~ Established in 1820, the USP is a voluntary, non-commercial health care organization that sets quality standards for a variety of health care products and services

Statement of Identity ~ A mandate that industrial food products conspicuously show the common or usual name of the product or identify the food with an “appropriately descriptive term”

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) ~ the utmost levels of daily nutrient intakes that are unlikely to cause health risks to the majority of the people within the group for whom they’re designed

Undernutrition ~ Poor health ensuing from depletion of nutrients due in part to inadequate nutrient intake over time. it’s currently most frequently related to impoverishment, alcoholism, and a few kinds of eating disorders