NASM FNS Chapter 1 – Food Choices: Nutrients and Nourishment

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Important definitions to memorize for chapter 1 of the NASM FNS

Amino Acids ~ Organic compounds that comprise the monomeric building blocks of a polypeptide (protein)

Calorie ~ A general term for energy in food used synonymously with the term energy. typically used rather than kilocalorie on food labels, in diet books, and in alternative sources of nutrition info

Carbohydrates ~ Compounds, together with sugars, starches, and dietary fibers, that typically have the general chemical formula (CH2O)n, where n represents the amount of CH2O units within the molecule. Carbohydrates are a significant dietary source of energy for body functions

Control group ~ a collection of individuals used as a standard of comparison to the experimental group. The individuals within the control group have characteristics almost like those within the experimental group and are hand-picked randomly

Circulation ~ Movement of substances or blood through the vessels of the cardiovascular or lymphatic system

Correlations ~ Connections, co-occurring more frequently than can be explained by chance or coincidence, however, while not a proven cause

Double-Blind Study ~ a research study founded so that neither the subjects nor the investigators recognize which study group is receiving the placebo and which is receiving the active substances

Energy ~ The capability to do work. The energy in food is a form of chemical energy, that the body converts to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy

Essential Nutrients ~ Substances that have got to be obtained in the diet because the body either cannot synthesize them or cannot make adequate amounts of them

Experimental group ~ a collection of individuals being studied to gauge the effect of an incident, substance, or technique

Flavor ~ The collective experience that describes both taste and smell

Hormones ~ Chemical messengers that are secreted into the blood by one tissue and act on cells in another a part of the body

Inorganic ~ Any substance that doesn’t contain carbon, excepting certain simple carbon compounds like CO2 and monoxide. Common examples include table salt (sodium chloride) and bicarbonate (sodium bicarbonate)

Kilocalories (Kcal) ~ Units used to measure energy. Food energy is measured in kilocalories (1,000 calories = one kilocalorie)

Legumes ~ A family of plants with seed pods, such as peas, beans, lentils, and soybeans; additionally known as pulses

Lipids ~ a set of fat-soluble compounds that features triglycerides, sterols, and phospholipids

Macrominerals ~ Major minerals needed in the diet and present within the body in massive amounts compared with trace minerals

Macronutrients ~ Nutrients, like sugar, fat, or protein, that are required in comparatively massive amounts in the diet

Minerals ~ Inorganic compounds required for growth and for regulation of body processes

Neophobia ~ A dislike for anything new or strange

Nutrients ~ Any substances in food that the body will use to generate energy, synthesize tissues, or regulate functions

Nutrigenomics ~ The study of how nutrition interacts with specific genes to influence an individual’s health

Nutrition ~ The science of foods and their various nutrient parts (nutrients and other substances), as well as the relationships to health and illness (actions, interactions, and balances); processes inside the body (ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, functions, and disposal of waste products); as well as the social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of eating foods

Organic ~ In chemistry, any compound that contains carbon, except carbon oxides (e.g., carbon dioxide) and sulfides and metal carbonates (e.g., potassium carbonate). The term organic is also used to denote crops that are fully grown without artificial fertilizers or chemicals

Phytochemicals ~ Substances in plants which will possess health-protective effects, even though they’re not essential in all cases

Placebo ~ an inactive substance that is externally indistinguishable from the active substance whose effects are being studied

Placebo Effect ~ A physical or emotional modification that’s not due to the properties of an administered substance. The modification reflects participants’ expectations

Proteins ~ massive, complex compounds consisting of many amino acids connected in variable sequences and forming distinctive shapes

Trace Minerals ~ Trace mineral are present within the body and needed in the diet in comparatively little amounts compared with major minerals. additionally referred to as microminerals

Triglycerides ~ Fats composed of 3 fatty acyl chains joined to a glycerol molecule

Vitamins ~ Organic compounds necessary for reproduction, growth, and maintenance of the body. Vitamins are needed in minuscule amounts