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Chapter 9 NASM study guide
Three important definitions
Core: All of the muscles that attached to or pass the joints in the lumbar pelvic complex.
Draw in maneuver: Where you draw your navel to your spine without spinal flexion. This helps to activate the inner unit of the core for stability.
Bracing: Bracing is contracting the outer muscle units. Imagine trying to squeeze everything out of your stomach by taking a deep breath, holding it and then pushing out. Clients should be practicing abdominal bracing while strength training with weights.
Local stabilization system
- Muscles that attached to the vertebrae.
- Consist mainly of type I slow twitch fibers.
- Provide support from one vertebra to another vertebra and are responsible for intersegmental and intervertebral stability.
- Helps with postural and proprioception control
- Consists of the muscles: internal obliques, pelvic floor muscles, lumbar multifidis, diaphragm, and transverse abdominis.
Global stabilization system
- Muscles that connect from the pelvis to the spine.
- It moves loads between the upper and lower extremities.
- Provides stability for the spine and pelvis.
- Provide stabilization as well as eccentric control for the core especially for functional movements.
- Consists of the muscles: gluteus medius, psoas major, External obliques, portions of the internal oblique, adductor complex, rectus abdominis, and quadratus lumborum.
The muscles of the core
- All of the muscles mentioned above in the local and global stabilization systems
- Muscles that attached the pelvis and/or spine to the arms and legs (extremities)
- Responsible primarily for the shortening of muscles (Concentric force production) and lengthening of muscles (eccentric deceleration) for dynamic activities.
- In addition to the muscles above, it consists of the latissimus dorsi, quadriceps, hamstring complex as well as hip flexors.
The progression and regression of core exercises
In order to understand the regression and progression of core exercises, you need a good understanding of the OPT training model as well as which exercises go in each phase.
Core training in each stage of the OPT model
Stabilization core training: Mostly done with stability balls or isometric holds. Between 12 and 20 repetitions, with a slow tempo, 0 to 90 seconds of rest and 1-4 sets. Example: floor prone cobra.
Strength core training: Include physically moving from the core, 8 to 12 repetitions, medium tempo, 0 to 60 seconds of rest and 2 to 3 sets. Example: reverse crunch.
Power core training: explosive movements including throwing medicine balls, 8 to 12 repetitions, 0 to 60 seconds of rest for 2 to 3 sets. Example: rotation chest pass.