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Chapter 10 study guide
Balance is influenced by: age, inactivity, and injury.
Dysfunction at the joints and the effects
Dysfunction at a joint can lead to improper sensory input. This, in turn, can cause a motor response that is incorrect.
When a motor response is incorrect, this is called muscle inhibition as the nervous system is inhibiting the muscle.
Due to this muscle inhibition, injury can easily come from these improper movement patterns.
This is a snowball effect as the injuries can cause inflammation and swelling which will further inhibit these muscles and lead to even worse proprioception.
Parameters for balance training
Understanding the balance training parameters for programs and training will result in effective training.
Progression in balance training can be done by starting off with easier exercises to see if your client masters them. If they do, move on to harder exercises. Start with stable/simple exercises and move to unstable/complex exercises. Also, start with slow exercises and move to faster ones
Proprioception progression can start with a client standing on a stable surface to having them stand on a Dyna disc or a Bosu ball.
Make sure to take your clients through all planes of motion and to understand that switching up body position will lead to more difficult exercises. An example is having two legs on a stable surface all the way up to balancing on one leg on an unstable surface (bosu ball).
Program design for balance training
Overall, it is extremely important to learn how to progress people based on the stages of the optimum performance training model. You need to know which exercises go into which phase of the OPT model. This is very important for the test.
Stabilization phase: In this phase, there is no bending of the support hip or leg. It consists of 12 to 20 repetitions (or 6 to 10 on a single leg), with 0 to 90 seconds of rest and at a slow tempo.
Strength phase: The strength phase includes bending at the knee or hip of the support leg. Some examples are toe touches, or unilateral squats. These are done for 8 to 12 repetitions, with a 0 to 60-second rest, and at a moderate tempo.
Power phase: The power phase includes hopping on the support leg (planted leg), is done for approximately 8 to 12 repetitions, 0 to 60 seconds of rest and at a moderate tempo as well. Imagine doing single leg jumps on the box.
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