ISSA Unit 17 - The big picture of nutrition
ISSA Unit 17 - The big picture of nutrition

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1: How do calories consume versus calories burned to relate to energy balance?

Energy balance is influenced by the ratio of calories in vs. calories out. A positive balance is when calories in are more than calories out, and vice versa for a negative balance.

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2: Describe the difference between positive and negative energy balance

A positive balance is when calories in are more than calories out, and vice versa for a negative balance.

3: Define nutrient density and how to determine the nutrient density of different foods

Nutrient density is the total amount of macronutrients in a given food source per unit of mass. nutrient density is typically higher in natural, whole foods which have undergone minimal processing

4: Describe the relationship between good nutrition and health, body composition, and performance

Good nutrition contributes to a healthy balance of structural, metabolic, and biochemical functions by supplying all the right material for good body composition and energy pathway function.

5: In what way does each play a significant role?

Energy balance provides the foundation for proper body composition and energy pathway activation. nutrient density catalyzes the right actions to take place within this foundation

6: In what way is good nutrition outcome-based?

All energy intake (food consumption) results in measurable outcomes. so when it comes to client outcomes, good nutrition is essential

7: In what way does this measure progress?

The results of good nutrition are measured by not only the changes in body composition but also the changes in physiological, psychological, and lifestyle function

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8: What are the limiting factors, and give 5 that commonly occur with new clients?

Limiting factors are aspects that set parameters around what one can achieve. These include genetics, exercise, mindset, diet, and physiology.

9: In what ways can determining limiting factors help you with clients?

Identifying limiting factors can help clients by targeting areas of weakness for reasonable outcomes and by managing factors in a way that doesn’t complicate or regress the potential outcomes.

10: Is there just one method for helping your clients with nutrition?

No, because each individual is unique based on their desired goals and limiting factors

11: What factors should be accounted for with each client?

  • Body type:
  • Dietary preferences & exclusions:
  • Budget:
  • Organic/conventional Some clients come to us eating only boxed and packaged foods.
  • Nutrition knowledge:
  • Time:

12: In what ways are different diets similar?

  • They help promote nutritional awareness.
  • They promote healthy exercise
  • They focus on food quality
  • They help eliminate nutrient deficiency
  • They help control intake and appetite

13: Define and discuss the 5 elements of an effective diet

They help promote nutritional awareness: they are educational as well as nourishing
They promote healthy exercise: they always take into consideration how exercise is a vital aspect in stimulating the effects of diet, just as good exercise will always lean on the need for proper nutrition
They focus on food quality: they take into account the quality of what you eat for the sake of long-term as well as short term outcomes
They help eliminate nutrient deficiency: they aim to provide a complete balance of all essential nutrients and are often developed as a response to recognizing the deficiencies we are exposed to in conventional nutrition
They help control intake and appetite: they account for the struggle in maintaining correct energy and nutrient balance through mindful management of what goes in and how much goes in.

14: What is the difference between habit-based and Diet-based coaching? Which is superior and why?

Habit based coaching inspires long term shifts in perspective and decisions on diet, whereas diet plans offer a once-off quick-fix solution to a life long need. habit-based coaching is, therefore, superior due to long term, sustainable benefits

15: What are several lifestyle differences to consider when working with clients?

  • Family
  • Life demands
  • Stress level
  • Work situation
  • culture
  • ethics
  • Income level

16: Why are vitamins and minerals important in our daily diet?

Vitamins and minerals are essential micronutrients; they drive many vital functions and serve as components to many vital substances and structures. being essential means, we can only obtain them from nutrient-dense food

17: What are phytochemicals and zoochemical, and what is their importance in our diet?

Phytochemicals are micronutrients derived from plant sources; zoochemical are micronutrients derived from animal sources. We need both because certain essential nutrients only exist in either one or the other.

18: Why is the view of food as fuel” detrimental? Is it beneficial to count calories? Why or why not?

Food as fuel offers a limited approach to understanding what nutrition really is. Regarding macronutrients, food can be considered fuel. Without the micronutrient aspect, there is nothing to activate the system that uses the fuel, and there is nothing to maintain, manage, stabilize, or repair internal function.

19: What is organic farming? Provide a few of the best practices for personal and environmental health.

Organic farming is the agriculture practice that uses natural biomes, soil biology, and ecosystem cycling with little to no agrochemicals or destructive farming practices.

20: What can we tell about food labels? Provide examples of meaningless and meaningful labels.

Food labels can provide necessary information about value and quality but can also contain meaningless information that merely serves as marketing buzzwords. Examples of meaningful food labels are
“Certified humane raised and handled.”
“Fair-trade certified”
“Natural food certifiers”
Examples of meaningless food labels are:
“Free-range” or “Free-roaming”
“Natural” or “All natural.”
“Organic seafood”

If you want assistance wrapping your head around this material, make sure to check out Trainer Academy for some awesome ISSA study materials. They have Practice tests, flashcards, audio study guides, and much more.

ISSA Unit 17 - The big picture of nutrition 1
ISSA Unit 17 - The big picture of nutrition 2
ISSA Unit 17 - The big picture of nutrition 3

Tyler Read

Tyler Read, BSc, CPT. Tyler holds a B.S. in Kinesiology from Sonoma State University and is a certified personal trainer (CPT) with NASM (National Academy of sports medicine), and has over 15 years of experience working as a personal trainer. He is a published author of running start, and a frequent contributing author on Healthline and Eat this, not that.

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