1: Explain “flexibility”.
the degree to which joints can move efficiently and safely within a flexion and extension range.
2: Explain the role of the sarcomere in flexibility.
A structural muscle fiber unit in striated muscle, made up of alternating bands dark and light.
3: List and explain the three inhibitory proprioceptors and their role in flexibility.
Golgi tendon organ causes the motor cortex of the brain to “shut off” muscle contraction
Pacinian corpuscles are sensitive to quick movement and deep pressure.
The muscle spindle a specialized muscle fiber which detects excessive stretch within the muscle.
4: Name 4 patterned tests to evaluate flexibility.
Sit and reach
Hip flexor test
5: Explain the constraining factors that may limit flexibility.
History of injury
muscle size due to the training effect
Nature of connective tissue about the joint
6: Explain the benefits of improving range of motion and surrounding musculature. Provide an example at a specific joint.
Increased ROM can increase force production and performance as well as reduce injury potential. an example is increasing ROM of the hamstring group in sprinters.
7: What occurs to the hip flexors when sitting for extended periods of time? What effect does this have on the spine?
hip flexors can be shortened by sitting
8: Name and describe the 3 areas applicable to the specificity of flexibility training.
Joint specificity: flexibility training can be prioritized toward joints that are most in need
Position and speed specificity: stretching exercises must be very similar in form and speed to the skill you are trying to improve.
Resistance training specificity: Two key points are to perform resistance exercises through the involved joint’s full ROM and to work antagonist pairs of muscles equally.
9: In what way does body temperature perform a function in effective stretching?
Body temperature increases the ductility of muscles to be stretched
10: For the following, give the definition, suitable period of time to perform each stretch and when each type of stretch should be performed within a single training session:
static stretching: 20-sec
dynamic stretching: instantaneous
PNF stretching: 10-sec
active stretching: 15-sec
passive (or relaxed) stretching: 20-sec
isometric stretching: 15-sec tension, 20 sec-relax
11: Describe reciprocal innervation:
the action of a muscle or group of muscles which is followed by the concurrent interference of an antagonistic muscle or group of muscles.
12: What are the 4 determinants should you contemplate when including higher levels of a range of motion into your programming?
1. Connective tissue restrictions
2. Bone configurations at the joint
3. Contact of muscle masses of adjacent segments
4. Strength of the muscles over the full ROM
13: Give suitable guidelines for foam rolling.
You simply take the foam roller and slowly roll it across the muscle from which you want to release adhesions and knots.
14: Give a suitable direction to foam roll regarding muscle origin and insertion?
rolling from the proximal to the distal attachment of a muscle.
15: In what way does weight training affect a loss of flexibility?
By not using the full ROM with heavy resistance
16: Give several examples of hazardous exercises that your clients must avoid.
straight-leg toe touch
seated toe touch
17: Describe the contrast between active and passive range of motion. What does each perform?
Passive flexibility refers to the ROM available when an outside force (e.g., gravity, momentum, another body part, or another person) is the causative force.
In active stretching, the muscles that are actively involved do so primarily in the eccentric contraction.