ACE CPT Chapter 8 – Physiological Assessments

ACE Study Guide Chapter 8

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ACE study guide, ACE practice test/quiz and ACE flashcards for chapter 8.

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Important things to know:

  • Being able to identify symptoms and signs that deserve an immediate termination of assessment
  • The onset of chest pain/discomfort, angina or similar symptoms
  • A drop of systolic blood pressure of 10mmHg or more with an intensity increase
  • An increase in blood pressure (over 115mmHg for diastolic or over 250mmHg for systolic)
  • Symptoms of excessive fatigue
  • Pallor (paleness), Cyanosis (coloration by mouth), Lightheadedness, clammy/cold skin, and nausea
  • Ataxia, confusion, syncope, and dizziness
  • Claudication or leg cramping
  • A request from your client to stop
  • Physical and verbal signs of extreme fatigue
  • Failure in equipment

Anthropometrics and body composition

  • Fat tissue and lean tissue
    1. Lean tissue (body mass): Bones, connective tissue, muscles, nervous tissue, blood, organs and skin
    2. Essential body fat levels for women: 10% to 13%
    3. Essential body fat levels for men: 2% to 5%
  • Hydrostatic weighing
    1. Also called underwater weighing
    2. The best way/benchmark for determining body composition
    3. Has approximately a 1.5% to 2% error margin
  • Skinfold measurements
    1. Is done by measuring subcutaneous body fat
    2. Has eight error of between 6% and 8% especially for inexperienced or untrained personal trainers
    3. Is usually between 2% and 3.5% of the underwater weighing measurements
    4. Jackson and Pollick 3 site locations
      • For women: Thigh, triceps, and suprailium
      • For men: thigh, abdominal and chest
  • Evaluation of body composition
  • Considerations for programming
  • Additional anthropometric measurements
    1. Body mass index (BMI)
      • Under 18.5 = underweight
      • Between 18.5 in 24.9 = Normal
      • Between 25 and 29.9 = Overweight
      • Between 30 and 34.9 = level I obesity
      • Between 35 and 39.9 = level II obesity
      • Over 40 = Level III obesity
    2. Measurements of girth (circumference)
      • Locations: Arm, calf, forearm, waist, upper thigh, mid thigh, hips, glutes, and abdomen
      • This is helpful for clients who have hypertrophy goals
    3. The hip to waist ratio
      • Gynoid (pear-shaped) and Android (Apple shaped)
      • Risk factors
        1. Over .95 for men
        2. Over .86 women
    4. Waist circumference
      • Risk factors
        1. 100 to 120 cm (39.5 to 47 inches) for men
        2. 90 to 109 cm (35.5 to 43 inches) for women

Fitness testing: Cardiorespiratory testing

  • Lab assessment or fitness centers
    1. GXT (graded exercise test)
    2. VO2 maximum
    3. Max heart rate
      • 220 – age fox, Naughton & Haskell (+/- 12 bpm)
      • 208 – (.7 x age) Tanaka, Monahan, and Seals (+/- 7 bpm)
      • 9 – (.67 x age) Gellish et al (+/- 7 bpm)
  • Cycle ergometer testing
    1. Sub Max VO2
  • Ventilator threshold testing
    1. Title volume: The amount of air that is exhaled and inhaled per breath
    2. Minute ventilation: The volume of air that is breathed in a minute
    3. Anaerobic glycolysis: an energy system that relies on carbohydrates
    4. VT1 (first ventilator threshold): When lactate builds up at a faster rate that it can be cleared out.
      1. Faster breathing
    5. VT2 (Second ventilator threshold): also known as the lactate threshold (LT): This happens when lactate increases at such a rate that hyperventilation (fast breathing) is not enough to maintain the increased acidity happening during more and more intense exercise.
  • The submaximal talking test for VT1
    1. This is better performed with a heart rate strap/watch (telemetry)
  • The threshold test for VT2
    1. OBLA (Onset blood lactate accumulation): The exact moment that blood lactate is accumulating at a faster rate than the body can remove it (usually >4mmol/L)
      1. This is also referred to as the lactate threshold or the anaerobic threshold
  • Field testing:
    1. deconditioned clients should not perform a running test
    2. The one-mile Rockport walk test
    3. 1 1/2 mile run test
  • Step tests
    1. Should not be done with clients that:
      • Have balance problems
      • Are severely overweight
      • Are very deconditioned
      • Have orthopedic problems
      • Are very short and have difficulty with stepping height

Testing for muscular fitness

  • Testing for muscular endurance:
    1. Curl up test
    2. Push up test
    3. Squat test with body weight
  • Testing for muscular strength
    1. One rep maximum (absolute strength): The most amount of weight a client can lift for one repetition
    2. Relative strength: The overall absolute strength for one’s body weight
    3. The one rep maximum bench press test, squat test and leg press test
    4. Only perform muscular strength tests for clients in either phase 3 or phase 4 of the IFT ACE model

Sports/skill assessments

  • Power assessments
    1. Only perform power assessments if the client is in phase 4 of the IFT ACE model
    2. Vertical jumping test
    3. The standing long jump test
  • SAQ
    1. Only perform if a client is in phase 4 of IFT ACE model
    2. The 40-yard dash test
    3. The pro-agility test

Fitness testing accuracy

  • Typical causes of inaccuracy
    1. Client factors: Lack of hydration, food intake before the test, the lack of quality sleep, overall fatigue
    2. Personal trainer factors: Inexperience with administering tests, attempting to influence results for encouragement
    3. Equipment factors: Bad calibration, failure of equipment, not matched well to the subject
    4. Environmental factors: Privacy, conditions of weather, distractions, temperature

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