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ACE CPT Chapter 8 – Physiological Assessments

ACE Study Guide Chapter 8

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    Important things to know:

    Be able to identify symptoms and signs that deserve an immediate termination of assessment

    The onset of chest pain/discomfort, angina or similar symptoms

    A drop of systolic blood pressure of 10mmHg or more with an intensity increase

    An increase in blood pressure (over 115mmHg for diastolic or over 250mmHg for systolic)

    Symptoms of excessive fatigue

    Pallor (paleness), Cyanosis (coloration by mouth), Lightheadedness, clammy/cold skin, and nausea

    Ataxia, confusion, syncope, and dizziness

    Claudication or leg cramping

    A request from your client to stop

    Physical and verbal signs of extreme fatigue

    Failure in equipment

    Anthropometrics and body composition

    Fat tissue and lean tissue

    Lean tissue (body mass): Bones, connective tissue, muscles, nervous tissue, blood, organs and skin

    Essential body fat levels for women: 10% to 13%

    Essential body fat levels for men: 2% to 5%

    Hydrostatic weighing

    Also called underwater weighing

    The best way/benchmark for determining body composition

    Has approximately a 1.5% to 2% error margin

    Skinfold measurements

    Is done by measuring subcutaneous body fat

    Has eight error of between 6% and 8% especially for inexperienced or untrained personal trainers

    Is usually between 2% and 3.5% of the underwater weighing measurements

    Jackson and Pollick 3 site locations

    • For women: Thigh, triceps, and suprailium
    • For men: thigh, abdominal and chest

    Evaluation of body composition

    Considerations for programming

    Additional anthropometric measurements

    Body mass index (BMI)

    • Under 18.5 = underweight
    • Between 18.5 in 24.9 = Normal
    • Between 25 and 29.9 = Overweight
    • Between 30 and 34.9 = level I obesity
    • Between 35 and 39.9 = level II obesity
    • Over 40 = Level III obesity

    Measurements of girth (circumference)

    • Locations: Arm, calf, forearm, waist, upper thigh, mid thigh, hips, glutes, and abdomen
    • This is helpful for clients who have hypertrophy goals

    The hip to waist ratio

    • Gynoid (pear-shaped) and Android (Apple shaped)
    • Risk factors
    • Over .95 for men
    • Over .86 women

    Waist Circumference Risk Factors:

    • 100 to 120 cm (39.5 to 47 inches) for men
    • 90 to 109 cm (35.5 to 43 inches) for women

    Fitness testing: Cardiorespiratory testing

    Lab assessment or fitness centers

    GXT (graded exercise test)

    VO2 maximum

    Max heart rate

    • 220 – age fox, Naughton & Haskell (+/- 12 bpm)
    • 208 – (.7 x age) Tanaka, Monahan, and Seals (+/- 7 bpm)
    • 9 – (.67 x age) Gellish et al (+/- 7 bpm)

    Cycle ergometer testing

    Sub Max VO2

    Ventilator threshold testing

    Title volume: The amount of air that is exhaled and inhaled per breath

    Minute ventilation: The volume of air that is breathed in a minute

    Anaerobic glycolysis: an energy system that relies on carbohydrates

    VT1 (first ventilator threshold): When lactate builds up at a faster rate that it can be cleared out.

    Faster breathing

    VT2 (Second ventilator threshold): also known as the lactate threshold (LT): This happens when lactate increases at such a rate that hyperventilation (fast breathing) is not enough to maintain the increased acidity happening during more and more intense exercise.

    The submaximal talking test for VT1

    This is better performed with a heart rate strap/watch (telemetry)

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    The threshold test for VT2

    OBLA (Onset blood lactate accumulation): The exact moment that blood lactate is accumulating at a faster rate than the body can remove it (usually >4mmol/L)

    This is also referred to as the lactate threshold or the anaerobic threshold

    Field testing:

    Deconditioned clients should not perform a running test

    The one-mile Rockport walk test

    1 1/2 mile run test

    Step tests

    Should not be done with clients that:

    • Have balance problems
    • Are severely overweight
    • Are very deconditioned
    • Have orthopedic problems
    • Are very short and have difficulty with stepping height

    Testing for muscular fitness

    Testing for muscular endurance:

    Curl up test

    Push up test

    Squat test with body weight

    Testing for muscular strength

    One rep maximum (absolute strength): The most amount of weight a client can lift for one repetition

    Relative strength: The overall absolute strength for one’s body weight

    The one rep maximum bench press test, squat test and leg press test

    Only perform muscular strength tests for clients in either phase 3 or phase 4 of the IFT ACE model

    Sports/skill assessments

    Power assessments

    • Only perform power assessments if the client is in phase 4 of the IFT ACE model
    • Vertical jumping test
    • The standing long jump test

    SAQ

    • Only perform if a client is in phase 4 of IFT ACE model
    • The 40-yard dash test
    • The pro-agility test

    Fitness testing accuracy

    Typical causes of inaccuracy

    • Client factors: Lack of hydration, food intake before the test, the lack of quality sleep, overall fatigue
    • Personal trainer factors: Inexperience with administering tests, attempting to influence results for encouragement
    • Equipment factors: Bad calibration, failure of equipment, not matched well to the subject
    • Environmental factors: Privacy, conditions of weather, distractions, temperature

    If you want additional study materials, check out the team over at Trainer Academy. They have incredible study materials for ACE And I have a special limited-time discount for my readers. I also suggest you check out my review on Trainer Academy here.

    ACE CPT Chapter 8 - Physiological Assessments 1
    ACE CPT Chapter 8 - Physiological Assessments 2
    ACE CPT Chapter 8 - Physiological Assessments 3

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    1 thought on “ACE CPT Chapter 8 – Physiological Assessments”

    1. Hey tyler i have purchased the basic program of ACE fitness in PT so i m considering ur free study program is it enough or i else do more with this stuff???

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