ACE CPT Chapter 11 – Cardiorespiratory Training: Programming and Progressions

ACE Study Guide Chapter 11

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Short and long-term cardiovascular exercise: Physiological adaptations

  • The muscular system
    1. Increases in
      • The number and size of mitochondria
      • Capillaries that surround the muscles being recruited
        1. This enhances oxygenated blood delivery
      • Number of slow twitch muscle fibers for low-intensity cardio
      • Increases fast twitch muscle fibers for higher intensity cardio
    2. Changes to the cardiovascular system
      • Results in a higher cardiac output
      • Results in larger stroke volume
      • Hypertrophy of heart muscles
    3. The respiratory system
      • Alveoli increase ventilation
      • Increase in overall title volume
      • Inspiration
        1. Pulling the rib cage upward: surround this interior, scalene muscles and sternocleidomastoid
      • Expiration
        1. Pulling the rib cage downwards: quadratus lumborum and rectus abdominis
    4. How long does it take to increase aerobic capacity
      • Within six months VO2 max plateaus
      • VT (ventilatory threshold) can continue growing for years
    5. Physiological adaptations to interval based and steady-state training
      • Steady-state takes about 3 to 4 minutes to reach
      • Heart rate, CO, O2 uptake rate (VO2), Blood lactate concentration, ventilation, and body temperature all get to stable elevated levels quickly after exercise
      • Interval training yields similar and sometimes greater results
        1. Interval training increases the tolerance for they lactate buildup threshold

Cardiorespiratory workout components

  • The warm-up
    1. 5 to 10 minutes
    2. Older clients need longer warm-ups as the conditioning phase is harder
  • Conditioning phase
    1. Cardiovascular drift – This is the gradual increase in one’s heart rate response from steady-state exercise
  • Cooldown

General guidelines for fitness, health, and weight loss

  • The frequency for healthy adults
    1. Moderate intensity levels: five days per week
    2. Vigorous intensity levels: Three days per week
    3. A combination of moderate and vigorous intensities: 3 to 5 days per week
  • Intensity
    1. Moderate intensity: 40% to 60% VO2R or HRR
    2. Vigorous intensity: at least 60% of VO2R or HRR
  • Duration
    1. Zone number one: VT1
    2. Zone number two: VT2
    3. Zone number three: VT3
    4. METS
  • Exercise progression
    1. Fartlek training – This is a sequence of varying intensities that stresses both anaerobic as well as aerobic systems
  • Karvonen method for finding heart rate training percentage
    1. Target heart rate (THR) = (HRR x % intensity) + RHR
      • HRR = MHR-RHR

Types/modes of cardiovascular exercise

  • Equipment based types
  • Cardiovascular exercise
  • Group exercise classes
  • Circuit training style
  • Exercising outdoors
    1. Exercising in heat
      • Heatstroke’s
      • Heat exhaustion
      • Peripheral vasodilation – This is where blood comes to the surface of your skin in order to lower the internal heat load
    2. Exercising in the cold
      • Frostbite
      • Hypothermia
    3. Exercising in altitude
      • Oxygen in the air is lowered due to the partial pressure
  • Seasonal exercising
  • Water-based exercising
  • Mind-body exercising
  • Lifestyle exercising

The ACE IFT cardiovascular training phases

  • Phase number one: Aerobic based training
    1. This helps create positive experiences
    2. It focuses on steady-state cardio
    3. Use talk test to gauge
    4. Progress clients after they can maintain 20 to 30 minutes of zone one (RPE 3-4_
  • Phase number two: Aerobic efficiency training
    1. Introduce intervals and increase the duration
    2. Increase the client’s workload at VT1 and introduce lower level VT2/RPE 5
  • Phase number three: Anaerobic endurance training
    1. This is for clients that have performance and endurance goals
    2. Use the VT2 threshold test in order to determine heart rate at VT2
    3. Increase focus
  • Phase number four: anaerobic power training
    1. Increase clients anaerobic power
    2. Buffer significant accumulations of blood
    3. Improve the Foss vision energy pathways
    4. Most clients typically will not work in this phase

Special considerations

  • Older adults
  • Youth

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ACE CPT Chapter 11 - Cardiorespiratory Training: Programming and Progressions 1
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4 thoughts on “ACE CPT Chapter 11 – Cardiorespiratory Training: Programming and Progressions”

    1. Hello,
      I recommend at least skimming over the full textbook for ACE. This is a great starting point but I would definitely recommend checking out some practice tests to make sure you are fully ready before taking the exam.

    1. Hello,
      Currently, I am not selling additional study materials for the ACE personal training certification. On the homepage of the study guide and practice test that has 50 questions on it.

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