ACE CPT Chapter 11 – Cardiorespiratory Training: Programming and Progressions

ACE Study Guide Chapter 11

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    Short and long-term cardiovascular exercise: Physiological adaptations

    The muscular system

    Increases in

    The number and size of mitochondria

    Capillaries that surround the muscles being recruited

    • This enhances oxygenated blood delivery

    Number of slow twitch muscle fibers for low-intensity cardio

    Increases fast twitch muscle fibers for higher intensity cardio

    Changes to the cardiovascular system

    Results in a higher cardiac output

    Results in larger stroke volume

    Hypertrophy of heart muscles

    The respiratory system

    Alveoli increase ventilation

    Increase in overall title volume


    • Pulling the rib cage upward: surround this interior, scalene muscles and sternocleidomastoid


    • Pulling the rib cage downwards: quadratus lumborum and rectus abdominis

    How long does it take to increase aerobic capacity

    Within six months VO2 max plateaus

    VT (ventilatory threshold) can continue growing for years

    Physiological adaptations to interval based and steady-state training

    Steady-state takes about 3 to 4 minutes to reach

    Heart rate, CO, O2 uptake rate (VO2), Blood lactate concentration, ventilation, and body temperature all get to stable elevated levels quickly after exercise

    Interval training yields similar and sometimes greater results

    • Interval training increases the tolerance for they lactate buildup threshold

    Cardiorespiratory workout components

    The warm-up

    • 5 to 10 minutes
    • Older clients need longer warm-ups as the conditioning phase is harder

    Conditioning phase

    • Cardiovascular drift – This is the gradual increase in one’s heart rate response from steady-state exercise


    General guidelines for fitness, health, and weight loss

    The frequency for healthy adults

    Moderate intensity levels: five days per week

    Vigorous intensity levels: Three days per week

    A combination of moderate and vigorous intensities: 3 to 5 days per week


    Moderate intensity: 40% to 60% VO2R or HRR

    Vigorous intensity: at least 60% of VO2R or HRR


    Zone number one: VT1

    Zone number two: VT2

    Zone number three: VT3


    Exercise progression

    Fartlek training – This is a sequence of varying intensities that stresses both anaerobic as well as aerobic systems

    Karvonen method for finding heart rate training percentage

    Target heart rate (THR) = (HRR x % intensity) + RHR


    Types/modes of cardiovascular exercise

    Equipment based types

    Cardiovascular exercise

    Group exercise classes

    Circuit training style

    Exercising outdoors

    Exercising in heat

    • Heatstroke’s
    • Heat exhaustion
    • Peripheral vasodilation – This is where blood comes to the surface of your skin in order to lower the internal heat load

    Exercising in the cold

    • Frostbite
    • Hypothermia

    Exercising in altitude

    • Oxygen in the air is lowered due to the partial pressure

    Seasonal exercising

    Water-based exercising

    Mind-body exercising

    Lifestyle exercising

    The ACE IFT cardiovascular training phases

    Phase number one: Aerobic based training

    This helps create positive experiences

    It focuses on steady-state cardio

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    Use talk test to gauge

    Progress clients after they can maintain 20 to 30 minutes of zone one (RPE 3-4_

    Phase number two: Aerobic efficiency training

    Introduce intervals and increase the duration

    Increase the client’s workload at VT1 and introduce lower level VT2/RPE 5

    Phase number three: Anaerobic endurance training

    This is for clients that have performance and endurance goals

    Use the VT2 threshold test in order to determine heart rate at VT2

    Increase focus

    Phase number four: anaerobic power training

    Increase clients anaerobic power

    Buffer significant accumulations of blood

    Improve the Foss vision energy pathways

    Most clients typically will not work in this phase

    Special considerations

    Older adults


    If you want additional study materials, check out the team over at Trainer Academy. They have incredible study materials for ACE And I have a special limited-time discount for my readers. I also suggest you check out my review on Trainer Academy here.

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    4 thoughts on “ACE CPT Chapter 11 – Cardiorespiratory Training: Programming and Progressions”

      1. Hello,
        I recommend at least skimming over the full textbook for ACE. This is a great starting point but I would definitely recommend checking out some practice tests to make sure you are fully ready before taking the exam.

      1. Hello,
        Currently, I am not selling additional study materials for the ACE personal training certification. On the homepage of the study guide and practice test that has 50 questions on it.

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