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Chapter 14 - Cardiovascular Training Methods

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    Chapter Objectives:

    • Give the relevant recommendations to cardiovascular activities. These include hydration, clothing, footwear, and warm up and cool down activities.
    • Give Advice for proper exercise technique on machines.
    • Be able to teach people safe participation for group classes.
    • Give clients the compatible cardiovascular activities for their preferences and abilities.

    Safe Participation

    Hydration

    Water is about 60% of body mass and it is used to regulate body temperature. It is a solvent for minerals, amino acids, glucose, and vitamins. It also serves to lubricate and cushion the body’s joints.

    We can lose as much as 2 – 4 quarts of water every hour when doing high intensity exercise in hot environments.

    The digestive system is able to use and absorb 1 quart of water every hour.

    When exercising for less than an hour, water is the main drink recommendation, but when exceeding that hour, we should look to sports drinks to restore both water and other important things lost with exercise. Your goal should be to replace the water lost with exercise, or if that is not possible, replace as much as you can while exercising and then reach that pre exercise level later after stopping exercise.

    Clothing and Footwear

    It is important to wear comfortable and loos fitting clothing when ding aerobic activity so we can easily move.

    Shoes should provide a good cushion, stability, and comfort for the wearer while also maintaining the flexibility. 

    Running shoes should be replaced every 300 – 500 miles, or every 6 months. 

    A Pediatrist can run a biomechanics analysis and recommend the best footwear for you.

    Warmup and cool down

    Both warmups and cooldowns help the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system adjust to the workload. 

    If the exercise has you going to a targeted heart rate, then you should have a 5 – 15 minute warm up to gradually increase the heart rate. 

    Exercise Frequency, Intensity, and Duration

    Frequency: 2 – 5 sessions per week.

    Intensity: 50 – 85% HRR.

    Duration: 20 – 60 minutes.

    Proper Breathing Technique

    You don’t have to be without breath the whole time to have cardio benefits. 

    Breathing needs to be relaxed and regular. Generally, you should be able to handle a conversation without too much time spent trying to breathe.

    These are not true for sprint and interval training.

    Exercise Program Variation

    Bringing in new exercises will require decreases in the intensity. 

    Clients should become acclimated to new training types as they are introduced to them, and then increase.

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    Training on Cardiovascular Machines

    Treadmill

    The main muscles used are the quadriceps, ham- strings, gluteals, iliopsoas, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus.

    Steeping on the Belt

    Tell the client to hold on to the handrails and straddle the belt. Turn the treadmill on and then set the speed to begin a 1 mph. The client should step with one foot and then begin walking.

    If unsure about balance at any time, they should hold the handrail until they feel comfortable.

    Advise clients to stay toward the front of the treadmill.

    Treadmill Running

    Clients will find treadmill running easier than running outside due to there not being air resistance. 

    Offset the difference by placing the treadmill at a 1% grade.

    Stair Climber

    The main muscles used are the quadriceps, ham- strings, gluteals, erector spinae, gastrocnemius, and soleus.

    Body position

    The client should face the pedals and step forward onto them. 

    Facing out puts the client at risk for injury.

    Hip movement is beneficial to effective working out on the climber, but not too excessive.

    Range of Movement

    It is most appropriate to move between 4 – 8 inches at a time. 

    Anything else will not target the intended muscles properly.

    Stepping Speed

    43 – 95 steps per minute are the general step ranges. 

    He client should be comfortable before demanding more speed.

    Elliptical Trainer

    The main muscles used are the quadriceps, ham- strings, gluteals, iliopsoas, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus.

    Foot placement and Handrail Usage

    The entire foot needs to contact the pedal surface at all times unless the machine needs the heel to lift.

    Body Position and Knee Placement

    Torsos should balance over the hips and knees should never come in front of the toes.

    Cadence, Elevation, Resistance, and Direction of Movement

    The cadence typically should resemble a walking motion when slow cadenced, and a running motion when fast. 

    These machines allow pedaling in both forward and backward directions, so you can expose muscle to different stress.

    Stationary Bicycles

    The main muscles used are the quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteals, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus

    Seat height

    Seat height should give you a slight bend at the knee joint at the bottom pedal stroke, without locking the joint out.

    Handlebars and Body Positioning

    The handlebars allow a forward tilt in the hips but not an excessively round position.

    Cadence and Pedaling Action

    60 – 100 revolutions per minute is the most economical rate. But these totally depend on experience with cycling, as more experienced people prefer higher intensities.

    Group Indoor Cycling

    This is typically a higher intensity workout for people as t is in a class atmosphere.

    Beginners need a good baseline before they begin cycling classes.

    Rowing Machines

    The main muscles used are the quadriceps, ham- strings, gluteals, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, soleus, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, brachialis, rectus abdominis, posterior and medial deltoids, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, teres major, erector spinae, and flexor and extensor carpi ulnaris.

    Starting Position and the Drive

    The head is upright, looking straight in front with a slight forward lean and an upright back. 

    The arms are straight in the front of the body and hips and knees flexed. The drive is done by extending the legs and hips and leaning back with the torso a little. The arm pull after the hips and legs fully extend.

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    The Finish, Recovery, and Catch

    The finish has the legs and hips extended, torso back, elbows flexed and handle in the abdomen. The recovery extends the elbows, lean forward and return to the start. 

    Resistance and Cadence

    Air resistance and water resistance are the common types for rowing machines. Most recreational rowers go at a pace of 20 -25 strokes per minute, with elite rowers going 25 – 35.

    Nonmachine Cardiovascular Exercise Techniques

    Walking

    The main muscles used are the quadriceps, ham- strings, gluteals, iliopsoas, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus.

    Body Positioning

    Walking tall, meaning that a string is pulling the head up and the vertebral column is straight.. The shoulders relax and never round. The upper body is above the hips

    Foot Strike

    Walking has the heel strike first and the weight of the body rolls through the foot.

    Arm Action

    Coordinated movement that has the left arm swing forward with the right leg, and vice-versa.

    Running

    The main muscles used are the quadriceps, ham- strings, gluteals, iliopsoas, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus.

    Body Positioning and Foot Strike

     The head is upright with the shoulders relaxed and tors over the hips.

    Foot strike is with the heel and rolling the weight again like walking. 

    Arm Action

    The arms alternate with the opposite leg. 

    Stride Length

    Stride length and frequency determine the running speed.

    The length is how far your stride goes.

    Over striding occurs when the foot lands further out than the hips.

    Under striding occurs when the foot lands before the spot over the hips.

    Stride Frequency

    This is how fast the strides are occurring. This plays a part in how great the force is on your feet.

    Swimming

    The main muscles used are dependent on the stroke you are doing. But mostly every muscle in the body is used.

    Leg Kick

    The legs are used to balance the body and to maintain a position that is horizontal.

    Breathing

    This occurs with the head turning to each side as a natural rotation of the body. Many beginners lift the head, and this causes them to sink.

    Group Exercise Classes

    The main muscles used are dependent on the exercises being done.

    Clients who are doing group classes should try their best to maintain optimal posture and align their ear, shoulder and hip.

    The abs and glutes should be slightly contracted so there is not excessive arching of the back. The knee should not come too far forward during knee flexion.

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    NSCA CPT Chapter 14 - Cardiovascular Training Methods 1
    NSCA CPT Chapter 14 - Cardiovascular Training Methods 2
    NSCA CPT Chapter 14 - Cardiovascular Training Methods 3

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