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Chapter 11 – Fitness Testing Protocols and Norms

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    Chapter Objectives:

    • Know the protocols for selected fitness testing.
    • Administer the selected fitness tests correctly.
    • Find valid and reliable measurements for the fitness level of clients and choose appropriate tests for individual clients.
    • Discuss clients’ results and their relationship with normative data.

    Vital Signs

    Heart rate and blood pressure are two of the ways to measure vital signs that are common in training. These both proves effective for determining the proper exercise intensity. 

    Heart Rate

    Most adults have an average heart rate of 60 – 80 beats per minute, with females having 7 – 10 more beats than males.

    Heart rates lower than 60 bpm classifies people as having bradycardia. 

     Heart rates over 100 bpm classify people with tachycardia.

    Equipment used:

    • Stopwatch
    • Stethoscope
    • Heart rate monitor

    Palpation procedure

    Use the index finger and middle fingertips to palpate the pulse. Avoid the use of the thumb as it has its own inherent pulse. Use one of the areas mentioned after step 3.

    Next if using a stopwatch, you start with the first beat as zero and go to either 6, 10, 15, 30, or 60 seconds.

    The last step is to make the measure you have equal to what it would be at 60 seconds. So, multiply by the appropriate number. 

    Sites for palpation:

    • Brachial artery: the anterior-medial aspect of the arm just distal to the belly of the biceps brachii muscle, 1 inch superior to the antecubital fossa.
    • Carotid artery: on the anterior surface of the neck just lateral to the larynx. Avoid applying too much pressure to this location when palpating for HR. 
    • Radial artery: on the anterior-lateral surface of the wrist, in line with the base of the thumb. 
    • Temporal artery: the lateral side of the cranium on the anterior portion of the temporal fossa, usually along the hairline at the level of the eyes. 

    Blood pressure

    This is the force of blood acting on the vessel walls.

    The sounds that are emitted are vibrations called Korotkoff sounds.

    Equipment used:

    • Mercury or Sphygmomanometer
    • Air bladder 
    • Stethoscope

    Procedure

    The client should not ingest caffeine within 30 minutes of testing.

    The client will sit upright in a chair with back support with left arm exposed supinated and at heart level.

    Use the appropriate cuff size for the client’s arm.

    Begin measuring BP after 5 minutes of rest in the position of step 2.

    Put the cuff on the arm with the bladder over the brachial artery.

    The client’s palm is face-up, the stethoscope is put firmly over the antecubital space.

    The sphygmomanometer dial is eye level.

    When all are in place, inflate the air bladder to 160 mmHg above the anticipated BP. When at max, decrease 2 – 3 per second.

    Record the diastolic and systolic to the nearest 2 mmHg found when hearing the first Korotkoff sound and the cessation of the sounds.

    Wait and observe for 10 – 20 more mmHg to confirm the loss of sounds.

    After 2 minutes, do the process again. If the difference is over 5 mmHg, then take a third.

    Once the BP is determined, classify the client.

    Body Composition

    Body comp measurement is of great interest for trainers and clients. There are advantages and disadvantages to all of them.

    Anthropometry

    This is the science of measurement of the human body. We typically include height, weight, and body girth measurements.

    Body Mass Index

    This is used to examine someone’s body mass related to their stature. It is an accurate indicator in some ways for the amount of body fat based on height and weight. It does not take muscle into account however and is more used for the general population, or people who don’t train regularly.

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    BMI = body weight in kg divided by height in square meters.

    Height 

    Basic measurement which is also known as stature

    Equipment needed

    • Standard platform scale
    • Flat, rigid, right-angled device

    Procedure

    Ask the client to take off footwear.

    Get the client to stand erect and face the wall or stadiometer.

    Tell the client to align the lowest orbit of the eye with their ear opening.

    The client will take a deep breath and hold until the measure is over.

    Read the measure.

    Mark the wall or stabilize the device and record the measurement to the closest centimeter.

    Compare the values to the charts in the book.

    Weight

    The mass of an object under normal acceleration from gravity.

    Equipment

    • Calibrated and certified scale

    Skinfolds

    This measures the subcutaneous fat tissue. They are highly correlated with body density measurements from underwater weighing.

    Equipment needed: 

    • Skinfold caliper
    • Nonelastic tape measure
    • Pen or other marking device

    Skinfold Sites

    Chest: Take a diagonal fold half the distance between the anterior axillary line and the nipple for and 1/3 of the distance from the anterior axillary line to the nipple for women. 

    Midaxilla: Take a vertical fold on the midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process. 

    Triceps: Take a vertical fold on the posterior midline of the upper, halfway between the acromon and olecranon processes; the elbow should be extended and relaxed.

    Subscapula: Take a fold on a diagonal line coming from the vertebral border to 1 to 2 cm from the inferior angle of the scapula.

    Abdomen: Take a vertical fold at a lateral distance of approximately 2 cm from the umbilicus. 

    Suprailium: Take a diagonal fold above the crest of the ilium at the spot where an imaginary line would come down from the anterior axillary.

    Thigh: Take a vertical fold on the anterior aspect of the thigh midway between hip and knee joint. 

    Medial calf: The client places the right leg on a bench with the knee flexed at 90 degrees. On the medial border, mark the level of the greatest calf girth. Raise a vertical skinfold on the medial side of the right calf 1 inch above the mark and measure the fold at the max girth.

    Bioelectrical impedance is a way to measure body comp using electrical impedance through the body between two electrodes. This measures the body’s cells and the response to electricity, as muscle and fat responds differently.

    Waist to hip girth ratio

    Not a true body comp, but it is a valuable tool for assessing relative fat distribution and disease risk.

    Just requires nonelastic tape measure.

    Cardiovascular Endurance 

    Submax endurance tests are used to attain reasonably accurate VO2 max predictions. These are used due to the high cost of equipment for VO2 testing.

    Cycle Ergometer test

    Similar to the YMCA cycle ergometer test but with a cycle and different movements obviously. So, we will describe the YMCA test procedure.

    YMCA Cycle Ergometer Test

    This test will get the client to about 85% of max HR with 3 minute stages of increasing effort.

    Equipment needed

    • Mechanical or electrical braked cycle ergometer
    • Metronome
    • Stopwatch
    • Heart Rate and BP equipment
    • Ratings of Perceived Exertion scale

    Procedure

    Get the client to perform at 50 rpm and maintain for the whole test.

    Put the work rate for the first stage at 150 kg/m/min

    Measure heart rate in the final 15 – 30 seconds of the second and third minute of stage 1.

    Use these based on the heart rate of the client:

    • <80 beats/min, set the work rate for the 2nd stage at 750 kg/m/min(2.5 kg at 50 rpm)       
    • 80-89 beats/min, set the work rate for the 2nd stage at 600 kg/m/min(2.0 kg at 50 rpm) 
    • 90-100 beats/min, set the work rate for the 2nd stage at 450 kg/m/min(1.5 kg at 50 rpm) 
    • >100 beats/min, set the work rate for the 2nd stage at 300 kg/m/min(1.0 kg at 50 rpm) 

    Measure heart rate again at the last 15 – 30 seconds of the second and third minute, if within 6 beats of each other, continue for another minute.

    Use the step 4 chart to set the next 2 stages and repeat the process.

    Finish the test when the client reaches 85% of their age-predicted max HR.

    Estimate VO2 like they do