NASM PES Chapter 10: Resistance Training Concepts 5

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Chapter Goals:

  • Be able to describe the role that resistance training has in improving performance in sports. 
  • Be able to discuss the many principles that we use for training and designing our programs. 
  • Find the stages of the general adaptation syndrome.
  • Be able to discuss the many systems we have for resistance training.
  • Find the right resistance training exercises in alignment with the OPT model.

Introduction

We have some very important principles of strength training like overload, variation, individualization, and adaptation. 

The Principle of Specificity: The SAID Principle

This principle here will basically states that the body adapts to whatever demands we place on it. So, the changes we wish to make in the body will come from only the specific types of demand. If someone trains by lifting heavy weights, the body will adapt to lift heavier weights.

When designing a program, this is important because it essentially says that for the athlete to improve in their sport, the training we implement will need to match their sport’s demands and position in that sport. 

We can see the sport’s specific needs and their position to know the exact types of movement, energy systems, and other specifics to aim for when training. 

Another way this applies is by saying we need to keep adding to the load and the stress put on the body, but it will be expanded with another principle. 

Mechanical specificity is about the weight and the movements needed by the body. It refers to the changes in the body that are specific for some parts based on weight and reps. 

Neuromuscular specificity refers to the speed of contraction and the selection of the exercises. 

So, in reference to developing higher power, the legs, for example, would need high velocity and low weight movements to improve.

Metabolic specificity is something we discussed with the energy systems, and this is when you train with a specific way to supply energy for specific training styles. Your body adapts and becomes more efficient based on the energy systems used. 

The Principle of Overload

The overload principle is one that says that providing the right stimulus in training will elicit the right adaptations physically, physiologically, and in performance. 

Tissues will adapt under the stimulus; without overloading and breaking down to a degree, they will not progress or adapt. 

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The Principle of Variation

Planned variations in programs for resistance training are essential for enabling continuous adaptations throughout the periods of training and for the prevention of injuries. 

Specific combos of intensity and volume will produce the right training adaptations.

The Principle of Individualization

It is important that we make the programs and things consider the age, medical history, injury history, training background, work capacity, recoverability, structural integrity, needs and goals, and the athletes’ sport. 

Principle of Adaptation

One of the main things that stick out as far as the human body is the ability to adapt and adjust the functional capacity for meeting our desired needs. This is the root of all training and conditioning. 

The muscles have the ability to adapt as far as a percentage of their type. They can change somewhat based on the needs of that muscle and how they are being trained.

General Adaptation Syndrome

The human movement system seeks to maintain balance at physiological levels. 

For this to happen, we must be able to change and adapt as we place stress on the body. 

We have three stages of response to the stresses we put upon the body. 

  • Alarm reaction Is the initial reaction to stress where we activate the protective processes of the body. The body begins by responding to new stresses inefficiently, but it will eventually match this over time. 
  • Resistance development is when the body increases its functional capacity and adapts to the stressor being caused. This happens after repeatedly similar sessions, and the body responds more efficiently. 
  • Exhaustion is the last part of this, and it happens when prolonged or intolerable stress occurs. Athletes reaching this stage will have problems like stress fractures, muscle strains, joint and muscle pain, and emotional fatigue. 

Henneman’s Size Principle

The human body is quite efficient at exerting force. 

When the muscles need to produce force, we do not just fire all the motor units at once; instead, we fire what we believe to be the right amount for the work to be done. 

We recruit our type 1 fiber first and then move up from there. 

The principle that we recruit smaller fibers and then bigger ones are known as henneman’s principle. 

Progressive Outcomes of Resistance Training

The idea of adaptations makes it clear that specific changes are happening based on the stresses we put on the body. 

For this, we must ensure we have a clear goal for our training. 

We have many forms of resistance training that we can focus on. 

Stabilization

This is the ability of the human movement system to provide optimal dynamic support for the joints and keep the right posture when we are doing movements.

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This will require us to have high levels of muscular endurance for the correct recruitment of the prime movers for increasing concentric force production and reducing eccentric forces. 

If training is not done with controlled unstable exercise, the athletes will not gain the same stability levels and may even worsen. 

Muscular Endurance

This is the ability of the body to make and maintain the production of force over long time periods. 

Training for endurance is not just the goal for endurance athletes, and it is not their only goal; it is really a vital part of programs for sports performance. 

This increases the core and joint stabilization, hypertrophy, strength, and power of the body’s stabilizers. 

Higher rep protocols are known to improve local muscular endurance more effectively. 

Hypertrophy

This is defined as the increase in the size of the skeletal muscle fibers as a response to increased tension levels. 

The general thought is that there is an increase in the cross sectional areas of the muscle fibers due to the increases in the synthesis of myofibril proteins. 

It may take a month or two to view these changes in a beginner, but eventually, it shows up and is known to occur pretty much once you start.

These programs focusing on increasing the size of muscles will mostly have training on 3 days a week and rep for 3 sets per exercise at around 8 – 12 reps. 

Strength

This is the ability of the neuromuscular system to make internal tension to overcome some external load. 

It doesn’t matter if the external load demands the neuromuscular system to produce stability, endurance, max strength, or power; internal tension is still required. 

As the loads increase, we increase the demand for greater loads, and when applied systemically, we see strength adaptations. 

Power

This is our ability to generate the most force possible in the shortest time possible. 

We calculate power as force multiplied by speed.

A high degree of strength must be established for the athletes that wish to maximize their power levels. This is why we have power training as the third part of the OPT model.

Resistance Training Systems

It is important to understand the multiple training systems and how they work with the OPT model and allow for the right management of volume, intensity, velocity, recovery, exercise prescription, neurological challenge, and progression of our exercises. 

The single set system

This is the use of one set for each exercise we do and it usually has the person doing 8 – 12 reps f the exercise in a controlled way and it is done two times a week for the development and maintenance of muscle mass.

The multiple set system

This is where we do many sets of exercises we choose, and the resistance, sets, and reps can all be chosen based on the client’s needs and goals. It can be good for novices all the way up to elite athletes. 

The superset system

This is where we would implement the use of some exercises together in rapid succession and we have a few types of this. 

Traditional supersets will usually see two exercises for the antagonistic muscles back to back.

Compound sets will see the person working the same muscle with multiple exercises back to back. 

Tri-sets will use three exercises back to back and for the same muscle group or body part.

Supersets will usually be done in sets of 8 – 12 reps with no rest between the moves.

High intensity interval training

This is seen as brief and vigorous bursts of exercise that are separated by periods of resting or recovery for the next burst. 

The purpose of this is to provide the most volume during a workout that you can. 

It is proven that this has greater metabolic adaptations than that moderate intensity. 

Split routine system

This is where you are splitting the body in some way and alternating those parts on certain days. Some of the more popular ones would have you do legs one day, then arms, or maybe even pushing and then pulling exercises. It can be quite varied in how it is handled. 

Vertical loading and horizontal loading

This is when the body parts are alternated from set to set, so it is kind of a way to achieve a full body workout. 

Make sure to review all of the diagrams and the exercise performance to know the stabilization, strength, and power exercises and look at how they are performed. 

Tyler Read - Certified Personal Trainer with PTPioneer

Tyler Read


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