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NASM CPT 7th Edition Chapter 7: Human Movement Science 1

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    Chapter Goals:

    • Give a summary for the scientific terminology that governs exercise and movement.
    • Be able to identify the key biochemical concepts that define how the neuromuscular system works.
    • Describe motor behavior and how the neuromuscular system changes based on the environment

    Introduction to Human Movement Science

    Movement represent the integrated working of the three main systems of the human body that we discussed in the former chapter: the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems.

    Together we call these three components the human movement system.

    We also break things down into the kinetic chain, which will break down the physical parts of the body where movement happens.

    When one part of the kinetic chain is not working well, the entire link is going to be compromised. 

    The idea of one part being compromised and how they are hurt is actually referred to as the regional interdependence model. 

    Biomechanics

    This is the study of the mechanical laws and principles that relate to movement. Biomechanics uses the principles of physics to study the movements at the joints, especially when it comes to sports and exercise. 

    Kinesiology is another discipline to be informed on. This studies movement and throws in a little more focus on human anatomy and physiology. 

    Biomechanical Terminology

    Anatomical position is an essential thing to understand when trainers are discussing movements and exercise in general. This is the position where the body is in a standing posture, and the arms are hanging down to the sides and the palms will face forward. 

    It is important to know these anatomical location descriptors: medial, lateral, contralateral, ipsilateral, anterior, posterior, proximal, distal, inferior, and superior. These are used to describe where things are on the body.

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    It is also essential to know the planes of motion, axes, and the joint motions. This is a large topic.

    We have three planes of motion: the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. 

    For the sagittal plane, you should imagine a line that bisects the body and breaks it down into right and left sides. Movements occur around the medial-lateral axis.

    The frontal plane has a line that bisects the body and makes both front and back halves. The axis that motion happens in is the anterior-posterior axis.

    The transverse plane has a line that bisects the body and makes both upper and lower halves. Motion occurs along the vertical axis, also known as the longitudinal axis.

    It is important to differentiate and be well informed on the scapular motion. The shoulder complex is vital to understand. We have scapular retraction, protraction, depression, and elevation as the main movements in the scapula. 

    Muscle Actions

    We have three main muscle actions, and one will be broken down into two more subdivisions. 

    Isotonic actions are ones where force is produced, muscle tension is developed, and movement occurs through a given range of motion. Isotonic muscle actions are subdivided into concentric and eccentric muscle actions.

    Isometric actions are ones where muscle tension is created without a change in muscle length and no visible movement of the joint.

    Isokinetic actions are ones where the speed of movement is fixed, and resistance varies with the force that is exerted.

    We can break down isotonic actions into the movements of eccentric and concentric. 

    Eccentric movements are going to be when the muscle is lengthening, but it is still contracting. The force put out is not enough to overcome the resistance.

    Concentric contractions are the movements where the muscle is shortening. The force put out is enough to overcome the resistance. 

    Functional Anatomy of Muscles

    In order to understand human movement and design a good program of exercise, it is ideal that we view the muscles’ capacities to function in the planes of motion and through their whole muscle action spectrum. 

    Muscles as Movers

    Agonist is the term used to describe the muscles that are the prime movers for the exercise or move in question. In a bicep curl, the biceps are the main mover, thus they are the agonist.

    Synergist muscles are going to be the muscles that help the agonist to function. They assist the prime movers, but they are not intended to be the prime mover.

    Stabilizer is a term given to the muscles that are used to support and stabilize the joints of the body that are involved in some way in the movement so that the synergists and the agonists can move through their whole muscle action spectrum. 

    Antagonist is a term used to discuss the muscles that oppose the prime movers and must lengthen in order for them to not stop the movement from occurring. 

    Open and Closed Chain Movements

    Closed chain movements are where the body stays in contact with some stationary surface. These closed chain movements require the movement of many joints in a predictable style with the contractions of multiple muscle groups. Some examples for this would be with exercises like push-ups, pull-ups, squats, or lunges. 

    Open chain movements are where the hands and feet are not in a fixed position, they are freer to move around in space. These are usually not weight bearing moves. Some examples of these moves would be with exercises like bicep curls, lat pulldowns, or bench press.

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    Muscular Force

    Force is the interaction between two entities or bodies that has the result of acceleration or deceleration of an object. These forces are characterized by the magnitude and direction.

    A length-tension relationship refers to the association between the resting length of a muscle and the amount of internal tension it can produce at that resting length

    Stretch Shortening Cycle

    This is used to describe a loaded eccentric muscle action that allows the muscles to prepare for a rapid contraction. The force put out is going to be increased significantly. 

    Force-velocity Curve

    This describes the inverse relationship between both force and velocity, and it is regarding the ability for the muscle to produce tension at different contraction speeds. 

    Muscular Systems of the Body

    We break down the muscles of the body into the local muscular system and the global muscular system.

    There are also subsystems to know the breakdowns for. It is important to refer to the charts throughout this portion of the chapter online to understand how these look.

    Muscular Leverage and Arthrokinematics

    Levers are what we use as a principle to describe how the muscles work and how some are better built to produce force.

    We have class one, two, and three levers that make up the muscles of the body. 

    A first class lever will be one that has a fulcrum in the middle. A second class lever is one where there is a resistance in the middle with the fulcrum and effort on one of the sides. Third class levers are the ones where the effort is put between the resistance and the fulcrum.

    A lot of the ideas of these levers will change and it is perhaps true that some people are better built for certain forces based on where their muscles attach and some other factors such as this.

    Motor Behavior

    Motor behavior is defined as the human movement system response to internal and external stimuli. 

    Motor control is the ability for us to initiate and correct purposeful movements and it involves mechanisms used by the central nervous system for assimilating and integrating sensory information with past experiences.

    Motor learning is the use of these processes through practice and experience, and this leads to a relatively permanent change in someone’s ability to do skilled movement.

    Motor development is defined as the total changes in motor behavior throughout time and a life span. 

    NASM CPT 7th Edition Chapter 7: Human Movement Science 2
    NASM CPT 7th Edition Chapter 7: Human Movement Science 3
    NASM CPT 7th Edition Chapter 7: Human Movement Science 4

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