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Chapter 13 NASM study guide
Important definitions to know
Single set: This is one single set for every exercise.
Multiple sets: This is doing more than one set for every exercise.
Pyramid set: When you decrease the number of repetitions as you increase the weight that you perform. Also when you increase the repetitions and decrease the weight.
Superset: When a set is performed immediately following another set.
Drop set: When you decrease the weight after failure in order to continue performing repetitions.
Circuit training: Multiple sets in succession with little or no pause between them.
Peripheral heart action: This is when you alternate between lower body exercises and upper body in a circuit style fashion.
Split routine: Where you focus on one muscle group on certain days. Bodybuilding style routine.
Vertical loading: When you do one set, move on to another one but then come back to the first exercise.
Horizontal loading: When you complete all of your sets for one exercise before changing to another exercise.
The peripheral heart action system
You need to know the difference of the exercises one will include for a PHA circuit for the different phases of the OPT model. You should notice that the PHA for the stabilization phase only includes stabilization exercises. This is the same for the power as well as the strength phase.
General adaptation syndrome (how the body reacts to stress)
Phase number one: the alarm stage
This is the first reaction to a stressor. It activates multiple psychological and physiological protective processes within the body. When initially starting a resistance training program, your body is forced to adapt. It increases the amount of force on muscles, bones, joints, the nervous system, and connective tissues. In the alarm phase, physiological responses occur. This includes an increase in oxygen as well as blood supply and a neural recruitment to working muscles.
Phase number two: the resistance stage
In this phase, your body is able to increase the functional capacity in order to adjust to the stressor. Here, the body increases its ability to efficiently distribute oxygen and blood to specific parts of the body as well as more efficiently recruit muscle fibers. Once this adaptation has happened, the body needs even more increased overload and stress in order to produce a new response or an even higher level of fitness.
Phase number three: the exhaustion stage
Prolonged stress can lead to distress and exhaustion. This happens when a stressor is simply too much for the physiological systems to handle. This will result in injury and breakdowns such as muscle strains, joint pain, stress fractures, and emotional fatigue.
Mental and physical benefits from resistance training
- Will help to improve muscle tone and strength.
- Helps in protecting the joints from injury.
- Helps to improve one’s muscle/fat ratio.
- Helps to improve one’s stamina.
- Helps with the control of chronic diseases such as depression, obesity, back pain, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes.
- Helps with pain management.
- Improved balance and mobility.
- Reduces one’s risk of injury.
- Helps to increase bone density which reduces one’s risk of osteoporosis.
- Helps with a better sense of well-being, self-confidence and can improve one’s mood.
- Helps with insomnia.
- Helps with performance enhancement.
Resistance training adaptations
- Stabilization promotes the adaptation of balance, muscular endurance, and improved joint stability.
- Muscular endurance promotes core endurance, decreased body fat and joint/core stabilization mechanisms.
- Muscular hypertrophy promotes muscular growth.
- Strength promotes the ability to overcome outside forces easier. The nervous system learns to recruit more muscle fibers at a single time.
- Power promotes the ability to produce force in the shortest period of time possible. Helps with all sports.