ISSA Unit 19 – Nutritional science

ISSA Unit 19 - Nutritional science

1: What are carbs and their chemical structure.

Carbohydrates are comprised of numerous arrangements of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a strict 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.

2: What are the 3 basic structures of carbs?

sugars, starches, and fibers

3: Give examples of carbs that are broken down into simple sugars in the blood.

glucose, fructose, or galactose

4: How are glucose uptake and insulin related?

glucose uptake is stimulated primarily by the hormone insulin.

5: Minimally processed carbohydrates and overprocessed/refined carbohydrates are different in which way?

The difference is fiber content. overprocessed carbs have a low fiber content

6: How does each affect your body?

unrefined carbs are absorbed slowly and result in managed insulin levels. refined carbs are absorbed quickly and may result in erratic energy spikes and insulin resistance

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7: What is soluble and insoluble fiber?

soluble fiber can be dissolved in water whereas insoluble fiber cannot be dissolved this way

8: How do they function in the digestive tract?

Soluble fibers bind to bile acids, which prevents their reabsorption and can decrease serum cholesterol levels. Insoluble fibers will add bulk to stools and increase colonic transit speed. This provides several benefits: increased satiety, lowered blood fat and cholesterol, reduced risk of colon cancer, proper intestinal motility, and a boost in overall gut health.

9: What is the average daily fiber requirement for men and woman?

35 grams/day for women and 48 grams/day for men.

10: Name the variable for finding the ideal carbohydrate intake for each client?

body composition, average activity levels, other macronutrient intake, unique goals, current medical conditions.

11: What is the role of carbohydrates in the diet?

The brain and central nervous system prefer glucose for fuel and benefit from a continuously available supply. it also helps with ATP production which is the cell’s energy currency

12: What is fat and its chemical structure.

Fats are molecules made up of carbon and hydrogen.

13: Describe with examples of saturated and unsaturated fats:

saturated fat: Fat with no double bonds between carbon molecules saturated with hydrogen molecules
unsaturated fat: A fat with at least one double bond in the fatty acid chain.

14: What are fatty acids?

Any of a large group of monobasic acids, especially those found in animal tissue

15: Describe triglycerides. In what way are they broken down?

A common fat in the diet. They are also the major storage molecule. the body breaks down triglycerides into 3 fatty acids and glycerol

16: Describe the 6 main roles of fat in the body?

lt provides energy (in fact, it’s the most energy-dense macronutrient). o
lt helps manufacture and balance hormones. r
lt forms our cell membranes. r
lt forms our brains and nervous systems. o
lt helps transport fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
lt provides two essential fatty acids that the body can’t make: linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid).

17: what are the two dietary conditions that lead to health problems with excess body fat?

excess body fat and negative blood lipid levels.

18: Describe omega 3 fatty acids and their 3 major roles?

An unsaturated fatty acid found typically in fish and plant. It occurs as: alpha-linolenic acid (l[tA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

14: What are their health benefits?

These vital fats play a function in many aspects, including cardiovascular function, nervous system structure, and the immune system

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15: What sorts of fats must be avoided?

Trans fats Partially hydrogenated oils, shortenings and an excess of saturated fats

16: What examples of foods would you find these fats in?

deep-fried foods, processed foods and mass-produced fast food

17: What is the significance of fat diet?

provides insulation, energy, energy storage and structural role in nerve tissue and cell membranes

18: What is protein and what is its chemical structure.

Nitrogen-based organic molecular compounds that consist of one or more amino acid chains that are vital for basic life.

19: What are amino acids and what is their role in the body?

The building blocks of protein. they provide energy, synthesis proteins for structural and metabolic action and are constituent in genetic material

20: What are branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs ).

branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): The amino acids L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine-which have a particular molecular structure that gives them their name comprise 35 percent of muscle tissue.

21: List each of the following categories of amino acids as per dietary requirement:

8 essential amino acids:
isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine, methionine, leucine, threonine, valine, tryptophan.
4 additional amino acids:
arginine, cystine, histidine, tyrosine
8 conditionally essential amino acids:
arginine, cysteine, histidine, glycine, glutamine, proline, serine and tyrosine.

22: What is the ideal intake amount of protein for a regular individual when participation in high-intensity training?

for generally healthy adults is 0.8 g of protein per kg of body mass. During high-intensity training or periods of low energy intake, these needs may be increased to about 1.6 to 2.0 g of protein per kg of body mass

23: Why is protein (amino acids) significant in the diet?

Amino acids and proteins play an essential metabolic and tissue structure role

24: What are vitamins? Name the water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.

Organic food substances present in plants and animals, essential in small quantities for the proper functioning of every organ of the body, and for all energy production. They must be obtained through diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body.

25: What are minerals?

Solid chemical elements essential to many body functions and structures

26: How is water significant the human body?

Water is the most essential substance in life. it is required in almost all structures and functions to some degree and its deficiency (dehydration) poses an acute risk to life.

27: What percentage of our bodies consists of water?


28: What is the ideal daily water intake?

120 lb/day.

29: What are the hazards of dehydration and hyponatremia.

Dehydration can cause death, hyponatremia can also lead to death

30: Describe 3 steps in dehydration prevention.

Step 1 – Consume 1 liter of water during workouts.
Step 2 – Consume 1 liter of water after workouts.
Step 3 – Consume 1-2 cups of water at each meal.

31: Which 3 vitamins and minerals need to be supplemented in a plant based diet and why?

zinc, calcium, iron, vitamin D and vitamin B12. because these are less abundant or not naturally occurring in plant sources.

32: Which vitamins and minerals need to be supplemented in a gluten-free diet?

Bl, B2, B3, E, and folate, iron and magnesium

33: What is the ideal daily intake of protein supplements?

two servings (generally 25-50 g of protein) per day .


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