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- Know the concepts underpinning training periodization.
- Understand the value, role, and application of periodization in programs.
- Discuss the four periods of the traditional periodization model.
- Discuss the two phases of the prep period of the traditional periodization model.
- Know the four sports seasons and the four traditional periodization model periods.
- Utilize the variables of program design to make a strength training program.
Central Concepts Related to Periodization
- General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
- Alarm = Athletes may have soreness, stiffness, and temporary drops in their performance.
- Resistance = Body adapts to stimuli by making biochemical, structural, and mechanical adjustments.
- Exhaustion = Fatigue, soreness reappearance, and the body loses its ability to adapt to stressors.
- Stimulus Fatigue Recovery Adaptation Theory
- This states training may give a general response influenced by overall magnitude of training stressors.
- The more workload that is encountered, the more fatigue happens to the body and the longer the delay of recovery and adaptation.
- Full recovery is not always needed for a new bout of exercise to be started.
- Fitness Fatigue Paradigm
- With every session, the fatigue and fitness aftereffects occur and create states of preparedness.
- When loads of training are the greatest, fitness is elevated.
- Fatigue goes away quicker than fitness, thus you can elevate preparedness.
- Periodization Cycles
- Multiyear plan is 2 – 4 years.
- Annual training plan is 1 year and can have one or multiple macrocycles. It has various periods of training like prep, competitive, and transition periods.
- Macrocycle is several months to a year. It has preparatory, competitive, and transition periods
- Mesocycles are 2 – 6 weeks. They are medium-sized cycles referred to as training blocks. Most commonly 4 weeks.
- Microcycles are between days and 2 weeks. Most commonly one week.
- Training day is one day and can have multiple sessions.
- Training session can be several hours. If there is greater than 30 minutes of rest, it is considered another session.
- Preparatory Period
- The first period is typically the longest and happens when there is no competition and only some sport specific practices or game strategy sessions.
- Provides a base conditioning level for increasing the athlete’s tolerance for more intense training.
- Hypertrophy/Endurance Phase
- Low o moderate intensities (50 – 75% 1RM)
- High to moderate volume (3 – 6 sets of 8 -20 reps)
- Basic Strength Phase
- High intensity (80 -95% 1RM)
- Moderate Volumes (2 – 6 sets of 2 – 6 reps)
- First Transition Period: In between prep and competition periods. The main goal is for shifting training toward strength elevation and power development.
- Strength/Power Phase
- Low to high loads (30 – 95% 1RM)
- Low volume (2 – 5 sets of 2 – 5 reps)
- Strength/Power Phase
- Competition Period
- For peak, use very high to low intensity (50 – >93% 1RM)
- For peak, use very low volume (1 – 3 sets of 1 – 3 reps)
- For maintenance, training intensity should be 85 – 93% 1RM)
- For maintenance, volume should be 2 – 5 sets of 3 – 6 reps.
- Second Transition Period (Active Rest)
- Between competitive season and the next macrocycle prep period.
- This period has recreational activity that can involve resistance training.
- This period gives a time period for the athlete to rehabilitate injuries and physically and mentally refresh prior to a new annual training plan. Period shouldn’t be longer than four weeks.
Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization Periods
- Off Season
- Considered prep period. Usually it is from the postseason’s end to the preseason’s start. About 6 weeks prior to the first major competition.
- Begins the first contest and has the late prep stages and the first period of transition with focuses on strength/power of resistance training.
- In Season
- Has all the competitions for the year.
- Post Season
- Follows the final competition.
- Important to active rest before the off season the following year.
Undulating vs Linear Periodization Models
- Linear: The traditional resistance training periodization model with a gradual progression mesocycle and increases in intensity over time.
- Undulating/Nonlinear: This periodization model alternative has a lot of fluctuations in load and volume for core exercises.
Example of an Annual Training Plan (Basketball)
- Intensity of sport specific training increases.
- 3 times a week of resistance training with focuses on power and strength.
- Anaerobic training and plyometrics are the highest priorities.
- In Season
- The main goal is to keep and improve strength, power, flexibility, and anaerobic conditioning.
- Limit for Resistance training of 30 minutes for 1 – 3 times a week with alternating plyometric training.
- Most of the time is on skill and strategy.
- Post Season
- There aren’t formal or structured workouts.
- Low intensity and volume for recreational activity.
- Off Season
- Testing for the beginning and end of off season.
- Higher priority is on resistance training.
- Flexibility and aerobic endurance training.
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