ACE CPT Chapter 5: Introduction to the ACE integrated fitness training model
ACE Study Guide Chapter 5

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Introduction

  • ADL (activities of daily living): cleaning, getting dressed, normal chores, requirements for work, cooking, etc.
  • Type II diabetes
  • Chronic diseases
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Hypertension
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Obesity

FITT-VP Cardiovascular exercise general recommendations

Frequency

  • Five or more days with moderate exercise
  • Three or more days of vigorous exercise
  • A combination of the two

Intensity

  • A combination of moderate and vigorous for the majority
  • Moderate to light exercise for deconditioned clients

Time

  • 30 to 60 minutes per day for moderate exercise
  • 20 to 60 minutes per day for vigorous exercise
  • Less than 20 minutes per day for sedentary individuals can be beneficial

Type

Volume

Pattern

Progression

  • Progression is done gradually by changing frequency, duration and/or intensity

FITT-VP resistance training recommendations

Frequency

2 to 3 times per week for every major muscle group

Intensity

Intermediate/novice: 60% to 70% of one rep maximum at a moderate/vigorous intensity

Experienced clients: 80% or more of one rep maximum at vigorous to very vigorous intensities (for gaining strength)

Sedentary/older clients: 40% to 50% of one rep maximum at a light/very light intensity (Good for beginning strength gains)

Use less than 50% of one rep maximum at a moderate to light intensity level for improving muscular endurance

20% to 50% of one rep maximum for improving power in adults

Functional fitness and health

Mobility/stability training: Ready for ADL’s

Balance training

Improving health from exercise

4 to 6 weeks with functional exercise before going into the fitness domain.

IFT (integrated fitness training model)

Training components

Resistance training (RT) and functional movements (FM)

Cardiorespiratory training

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Phase number one

  • RT and FM – Mobility and stability
  • Cardiorespiratory – Aerobic based training

Phase number two

  • RT and FM – Movement training
  • Cardiorespiratory: Aerobic efficiency training

Phase number three

  • RT and FM: Load training
  • Cardiorespiratory: Anaerobic endurance training

Phase number four

  • RT and FM: Performance training
  • Cardiorespiratory training: Anaerobic power training

The first session

  • Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, weight, and height (health risk appraisal)

The first or second session

  • If necessary, get medical clearance for exercise
  • Static posture
  • Flexibility
  • Movement screens

The first week

  • Dynamic and static balance
  • Core function

The second week

  • Assessments such as flexibility, aerobic capacity, body composition, etc.

The third week

  • Muscular endurance as well as muscular strength
  • Varies by goals and needs
  • Assessments related to a skill, such as agility, speed, reaction time, coordination, and power
  • Rapport is the foundation for the IFT model

The phases and components of the IFT model

Resistance training and functional movement

Phase number one: Mobility and stability

Present to low-intensity exercises

Improve muscular endurance, muscular balance, core function, static and dynamic balance (for posture), and flexibility.

Neutral position (Unique for each client)

Improve the function and strength of the muscles that are responsible for stabilizing the COG and spine during movement.

Assessments: Balance, movement, posture, range of motion at the hip, shoulder, ankle, lumbar spine, and thoracic spine.

Phase number two: Movement training

Bend and lift movements such as sitting down, standing up, and squatting.

Single leg movements include lunging and stepping forward to pick something off the ground.

Pushing movements in the directions overhead, lateral, forward, and downward.

Pulling movements such as picking up a child.

Rotational movements such as reaching across one’s body and spiral rotation.

Anatomical positioning and the planes of motion

Sagittal: This cuts your body into the right and left halves.

Frontal: This cuts your body into back and front halves.

Transverse: This cuts the body into upper and lower halves.

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Superior: Being above a certain point (your knee is superior to your ankle).

Inferior: Being below a certain point (Your ankle is inferior to your knee).

Posterior: refers to the back of your body (Your back is located posterior).

Anterior (or ventral): This refers to the front of your body (Your chest is located anterior).

Medial: Inside of a given point (Your navel is medial to your hip).

Lateral: Outside of a given point (Your right your is lateral to your right eye).

Emphasis on deceleration and controlled motion with eccentric muscle actions.

Phase number three: Load training

Goals addressed

Body composition changed

Muscular endurance

Muscular strength

Muscular hypertrophy

Motor unit recruitment

Undulating periodization or linear

This can be a long phase (years), especially if your client has no performance-based training goals.

Phase number four: Performance training

Improving your client’s quickness, speed, agility, power, and reactivity.

Force is mass x acceleration.

Power is force x velocity or work/time

Velocity is distance/time

Work is force x distance

Techniques

Kettlebell lifts

Olympic style weightlifting

Medicine ball throws

Plyometric training

Goals

Increasing the rate coding: The speed at that motor units stimulate a muscle to produce force/contract. This can be achieved by minimizing transition time from eccentric to concentrate actions and maximizing the stretch reflex.

Type II muscle fiber development: Improvement of definition and muscle size. Produce short duration contractions and high force.

Cardiorespiratory training

Phase number one: Aerobic based training

This is steady-state training at a low/moderate range under the first ventilator threshold (VT1).

RPE at around three or four on a scale from 0 to 10.

The talking test: If your client can continue a conversation (using longer sentences) while talking comfortably and exercising, they are below VT1.

Phase number two: Aerobic efficiency training

Goals

  • To improve aerobic efficiency by increasing the frequency, duration, and intensity.
  • Introduction of intervals at or slightly above VT1 or an RPE of approximately five.

Phase number three: Anaerobic endurance training

Goals

  • Improving clients’ performance for endurance events.
  • Training other fitness enthusiasts for even higher levels of cardio fitness.
  • Introducing higher intensity intervals for tolerance and lactate threshold training.
  • Balance the time under VT1, between VT1-VT2, and over VT2.

Phase 3 training zone

  • Zone number one (under VT1)
  • 70% to 80% of overall training time

Warm-ups, cooldowns, recovery workouts, and long distance workouts

  • 3 to 4 RPE
  • Multiple days per week

Zone number two (VT1 to just under VT2)

  • Under 10% of training time
  • Aerobic efficiency
  • 5 RPE
  • One or two training sessions/week

Zone number three (at or over VT2)

  • 10% to 20% of training time
  • Anaerobic endurance
  • 7 to 8 RPE
  • One or two training sessions per week

Overtraining signs

  • Sleeping is disturbed
  • Resting heart rate higher than normal
  • Decreased overall hunger

Solution – lower the frequency and intensity. Focus more on recovery and moderate to low RPE (3-4) exercise.

Phase number four: Anaerobic power training

Goals

  • For peak power development
  • To increase client’s aerobic capacity
  • Intervals above VT2 and RPE of 9 or more
  • The glycolytic system overloaded fast
  • Challenging the phosphagen system
  • Improving the capability to work for extended sessions over the lactate threshold

Training Zones

Zone number one (under VT1)

  • 70% to 80%
  • Cooldowns, Warm-ups, Recovery workouts, long distances
  • 3-4 RPE
  • Multiple days per week

Zone number two (VT1-VT2)

  • Less than 10%
  • Aerobic efficiency
  • 5 RPE
  • 1 to 2 sessions per week

Zone number three (At or over VT2)

  • 10% to 20%
  • Anaerobic power
  • 9-10 RPE
  • 1 to 2 sessions per week
  • Near max effort intervals
  • Long recovery times with short duration

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ACE CPT Chapter 5: Introduction to the ACE integrated fitness training model 1
ACE CPT Chapter 5: Introduction to the ACE integrated fitness training model 2
ACE CPT Chapter 5: Introduction to the ACE integrated fitness training model 3

Tyler Read

Tyler Read, BSc, CPT. Tyler holds a B.S. in Kinesiology from Sonoma State University and is a certified personal trainer (CPT) with NASM (National Academy of sports medicine), and has over 15 years of experience working as a personal trainer. He is a published author of running start, and a frequent contributing author on Healthline and Eat this, not that.

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