ACE CPT Chapter 5: Introduction to the ACE integrated fitness training model

ACE Study Guide Chapter 5

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    • ADL (activities of daily living): cleaning, getting dressed, normal chores, requirements for work, cooking etc.
    • Type II diabetes
    • Chronic diseases
    • Coronary artery disease
    • Hypertension
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Osteoporosis
    • Obesity

    FITT-VP Cardiovascular exercise general recommendations


    • Five or more days with moderate exercise
    • Three or more days of vigorous exercise
    • A combination of the two


    • A combination of moderate and vigorous for the majority
    • Moderate to light exercise for deconditioned clients


    • 30 to 60 minutes per day for moderate exercise
    • 20 to 60 minutes per day for vigorous exercise
    • Less than 20 minutes per day for sedentary individuals can be beneficial





    • Progression is done gradually by changing frequency, duration and/or intensity

    FITT-VP resistance training recommendations


    2 to 3 times per week for every major muscle group


    Intermediate/novice: 60% to 70% of one rep maximum at a moderate/vigorous intensity

    Experienced clients: 80% or more of one rep maximum at vigorous to very vigorous intensities (for gaining strength)

    Sedentary/older clients: 40% to 50% of one rep maximum at a light/very light intensity (Good for beginning strength gains)

    Use less than 50% of one rep maximum at a moderate to light intensity level for improving muscular endurance

    20% to 50% of one rep maximum for improving power in adults

    Functional fitness and health

    Mobility/stability training: Ready for ADL’s

    Balance training

    Improving health from exercise

    4 to 6 weeks with functional exercise before going into the fitness domain.

    IFT (integrated fitness training model)

    Training components

    Resistance training (RT) and functional movements (FM)

    Cardiorespiratory training

    Phase number one

    • RT and FM – Mobility and stability
    • Cardiorespiratory – Aerobic based training

    Phase number two

    • RT and FM – Movement training
    • Cardiorespiratory: Aerobic efficiency training

    Phase number three

    • RT and FM: Load training
    • Cardiorespiratory: Anaerobic endurance training

    Phase number four

    • RT and FM: Performance training
    • Cardiorespiratory training: Anaerobic power training

    The first session

    • Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, weight, height (health risk appraisal)

    The first or second session

    • If necessary get medical clearance for exercise
    • Static posture
    • Flexibility
    • Movement screens

    The first week

    • Dynamic and static balance
    • Core function

    The second week

    • Assessments such as flexibility, aerobic capacity, body composition etc.

    The third week

    • Muscular endurance as well as muscular strength
    • Varies by goals and needs
    • Assessments related to a skill such as agility, speed, reaction time, coordination and power
    • Rapport is the foundation for the IFT model

    The phases and components of the IFT model

    Resistance training and functional movement

    Phase number one: Mobility and stability

    Present to low-intensity exercises

    Improve on muscular endurance, muscular balance, core function, static and dynamic balance (for posture) and flexibility

    Neutral position (Unique for each client)

    Improve the function and the strength of the muscles that are responsible for stabilizing the COG and spine during movement.

    Assessments: Balance, movement, posture, range of motion at the hip, shoulder, ankle, lumbar spine and thoracic spine.

    Phase number two: Movement training

    Bend and lift movements such as sitting down, standing up and squatting.

    Single leg movements such as lunging and stepping forward to pick something off the ground.

    Pushing movements in the directions overhead, lateral, forward and downward.

    Pulling movements such as picking up a child.

    Rotational movements such as reaching across one’s body and spiral rotation.

    Anatomical positioning and the planes of motion

    Sagittal: This cuts your body into right and left halves.

    Frontal: This cuts your body into back and front halves.

    Transverse: This cuts the body into upper and lower halves.

    Superior: Being above a certain point (your knee is superior to your ankle).

    Inferior: Being below a certain point (Your ankle is inferior to your knee).

    Posterior: This refers to the back of your body (Your back is located posterior).

    Anterior (or ventral): This refers to the front of your body (Your chest is located anterior).

    Medial: Inside of a given point (Your navel is medial to your hip).

    Lateral: Outside of a given point (Your right your is lateral to your right eye).

    Emphasis on deceleration and controlled motion with eccentric muscle actions.

    Phase number three: Load training

    Goals addressed

    Body composition changed

    Muscular endurance

    Muscular strength

    Muscular hypertrophy

    Motor unit recruitment

    Undulating periodization or linear

    This can be a long phase (years) especially if your client has no performance-based training goals.

    Phase number four: Performance training

    Improving your client’s quickness, speed, agility, power, and reactivity.

    Force is mass x acceleration.

    Power is force x velocity or work/time

    Velocity is distance/time

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    Work is force x distance


    Kettlebell lifts

    Olympic style weightlifting

    Medicine ball throws

    Plyometric training


    Increasing the rate coding: The speed that motor units stimulate a muscle in order to produce force/contract. This can be achieved by minimizing transition time from eccentric to concentrate actions and maximizing the stretch reflex.

    Type II muscle fiber development: Improvement of definition and muscle size. Produce short duration contractions and high force.

    Cardiorespiratory training

    Phase number one: Aerobic based training

    This is steady-state training at a low/moderate range under the first ventilator threshold (VT1).

    RPE at around three or four on a scale from 0 to 10.

    The talking test: If your client can continue a conversation (using longer sentences) while talking comfortably and exercising, they are below VT1.

    Phase number two: Aerobic efficiency training


    • To improve aerobic efficiency by increasing the frequency, duration, and intensity.
    • Introduction of intervals at or slightly above VT1 or an RPE of approximately five.

    Phase number three: Anaerobic endurance training


    • Improving clients performance for endurance events.
    • Training other fitness enthusiasts for even higher levels of cardio fitness.
    • Introducing higher intensity intervals for tolerance and lactate threshold training.
    • Balance the time under VT1, between VT1-VT2 and over VT2.

    Phase 3 training zone

    • Zone number one (under VT1)
    • 70% to 80% of overall training time

    Warm-ups, cooldowns, recovery workouts, and long distance workouts

    • 3 to 4 RPE
    • Multiple days per week

    Zone number two (VT1 to just under VT2)

    • Under 10% of training time
    • Aerobic efficiency
    • 5 RPE
    • One or two training sessions/week

    Zone number three (at or over VT2)

    • 10% to 20% of training time
    • Anaerobic endurance
    • 7 to 8 RPE
    • One or two training sessions per week

    Overtraining signs

    • Sleeping is disturbed
    • Resting heart rate higher than normal
    • Decreased overall hunger

    Solution – lower the frequency and intensity. Focus more on recovery and moderate to low RPE (3-4) exercise

    Phase number four: Anaerobic power training


    • For peak power development
    • To increase clients aerobic capacity
    • Intervals above VT2 and RPE of 9 or more
    • Glycolytic system overloaded fast
    • Challenging the phosphagen system
    • Improving the capability to work for extended sessions over the lactate threshold

    Training Zones

    Zone number one (under VT1)

    • 70% to 80%
    • Cooldowns, Warm-ups Recovery workouts, long distances
    • 3-4 RPE
    • Multiple days per week

    Zone number two (VT1-VT2)

    • Less than 10%
    • Aerobic efficiency
    • 5 RPE
    • 1 to 2 sessions per week

    Zone number three (At or over VT2)

    • 10% to 20%
    • Anaerobic power
    • 9-10 RPE
    • 1 to 2 sessions per week
    • Near max effort intervals
    • Long recovery times with short duration

    If you want additional study materials, check out the team over at Trainer Academy. They have incredible study materials for ACE And I have a special limited-time discount for my readers. I also suggest you check out my review on Trainer Academy here.

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