ACE CPT Chapter 5: Introduction to the ACE integrated fitness training model

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ACE study guide, ACE practice test/quiz and ACE flashcards for chapter 5.

Introduction

  • ADL (activities of daily living): cleaning, getting dressed, normal chores, requirements for work, cooking etc.
  • Type II diabetes
  • Chronic diseases
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Hypertension
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Obesity

FITT-VP Cardiovascular exercise general recommendations

  • Frequency
    • Five or more days with moderate exercise
    • Three or more days of vigorous exercise
    • A combination of the two
  • Intensity
    • A combination of moderate and vigorous for the majority
    • Moderate to light exercise for deconditioned clients
  • Time
    • 30 to 60 minutes per day for moderate exercise
    • 20 to 60 minutes per day for vigorous exercise
    • Less than 20 minutes per day for sedentary individuals can be beneficial
  • Type
  • Volume
  • Pattern
  • Progression
    • Progression is done gradually by changing frequency, duration and/or intensity

FITT-VP resistance training recommendations

  • Frequency
    • 2 to 3 times per week for every major muscle group
  • Intensity
    • Intermediate/novice: 60% to 70% of one rep maximum at a moderate/vigorous intensity
    • Experienced clients: 80% or more of one rep maximum at vigorous to very vigorous intensities (for gaining strength)
    • Sedentary/older clients: 40% to 50% of one rep maximum at a light/very light intensity (Good for beginning strength gains)
    • Use less than 50% of one rep maximum at a moderate to light intensity level for improving muscular endurance
    • 20% to 50% of one rep maximum for improving power in adults

Functional fitness and health

  • Mobility/stability training: Ready for ADL’s
  • Balance training
  • Improving health from exercise
  • 4 to 6 weeks with functional exercise before going into the fitness domain.

IFT (integrated fitness training model)

  • Training components
    1. Resistance training (RT) and functional movements (FM)
    2. Cardiorespiratory training
  • Phase number one
    1. RT and FM – Mobility and stability
    2. Cardiorespiratory – Aerobic based training
  • Phase number two
    1. RT and FM – Movement training
    2. Cardiorespiratory: Aerobic efficiency training
  • Phase number three
    1. RT and FM: Load training
    2. Cardiorespiratory: Anaerobic endurance training
  • Phase number four
    1. RT and FM: Performance training
    2. Cardiorespiratory training: Anaerobic power training
  • The first session
    1. Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, weight, height (health risk appraisal)
  • The first or second session
    1. If necessary get medical clearance for exercise
    2. Static posture
    3. Flexibility
    4. Movement screens
  • The first week
    1. Dynamic and static balance
    2. Core function
  • The second week
    1. Assessments such as flexibility, aerobic capacity, body composition etc.
  • The third week
    1. Muscular endurance as well as muscular strength
  • Varies by goals and needs
    1. Assessments related to a skill such as agility, speed, reaction time, coordination and power
  • Rapport is the foundation for the IFT model

The phases and components of the IFT model

Resistance training and functional movement

  1. Phase number one: Mobility and stability
    • Present to low-intensity exercises
    • Improve on muscular endurance, muscular balance, core function, static and dynamic balance (for posture) and flexibility
    • Neutral position (Unique for each client)
    • Improve the function and the strength of the muscles that are responsible for stabilizing the COG and spine during movement.
    • Assessments: Balance, movement, posture, range of motion at the hip, shoulder, ankle, lumbar spine and thoracic spine.
  2. Phase number two: Movement training
    • Bend and lift movements such as sitting down, standing up and squatting.
    • Single leg movements such as lunging and stepping forward to pick something off the ground.
    • Pushing movements in the directions overhead, lateral, forward and downward.
    • Pulling movements such as picking up a child.
    • Rotational movements such as reaching across one’s body and spiral rotation.
    • Anatomical positioning and the planes of motion
      1. Sagittal: This cuts your body into right and left halves.
      2. Frontal: This cuts your body into back and front halves.
      3. Transverse: This cuts the body into upper and lower halves.
      4. Superior: Being above a certain point (your knee is superior to your ankle).
      5. Inferior: Being below a certain point (Your ankle is inferior to your knee).
      6. Posterior: This refers to the back of your body (Your back is located posterior).
      7. Anterior (or ventral): This refers to the front of your body (Your chest is located anterior).
      8. Medial: Inside of a given point (Your navel is medial to your hip).
      9. Lateral: Outside of a given point (Your right your is lateral to your right eye).
    • Emphasis on deceleration and controlled motion with eccentric muscle actions.
  3. Phase number three: Load training
    • Goals addressed
      1. Body composition changed
      2. Muscular endurance
      3. Muscular strength
      4. Muscular hypertrophy
      5. Motor unit recruitment
    • Undulating periodization or linear
    • This can be a long phase (years) especially if your client has no performance-based training goals.
  4. Phase number four: Performance training
    • Improving your client’s quickness, speed, agility, power, and reactivity.
      1. Force is mass x acceleration.
      2. Power is force x velocity or work/time
      3. Velocity is distance/time
      4. Work is force x distance
    • Techniques
      1. Kettlebell lifts
      2. Olympic style weightlifting
      3. Medicine ball throws
      4. Plyometric training
    • Goals
      1. Increasing the rate coding: The speed that motor units stimulate a muscle in order to produce force/contract. This can be achieved by minimizing transition time from eccentric to concentrate actions and maximizing the stretch reflex.
      2. Type II muscle fiber development: Improvement of definition and muscle size. Produce short duration contractions and high force.

Cardiorespiratory training

  • Phase number one: Aerobic based training
    • This is steady-state training at a low/moderate range under the first ventilator threshold (VT1).
      1. RPE at around three or four on a scale from 0 to 10.
      2. The talking test: If your client can continue a conversation (using longer sentences) while talking comfortably and exercising, they are below VT1.
  • Phase number two: Aerobic efficiency training
    • Goals
      1. To improve aerobic efficiency by increasing the frequency, duration, and intensity.
      2. Introduction of intervals at or slightly above VT1 or an RPE of approximately five.
  • Phase number three: Anaerobic endurance training
    • Goals
      1. Improving clients performance for endurance events.
      2. Training other fitness enthusiasts for even higher levels of cardio fitness.
      3. Introducing higher intensity intervals for tolerance and lactate threshold training.
        • Balance the time under VT1, between VT1-VT2 and over VT2.
    • Phase 3 training zone
      1. Zone number one (under VT1)
        • 70% to 80% of overall training time
        • Warm-ups, cooldowns, recovery workouts, and long distance workouts
        • 3 to 4 RPE
        • Multiple days per week
      2. Zone number two (VT1 to just under VT2)
        • Under 10% of training time
        • Aerobic efficiency
        • 5 RPE
        • One or two training sessions/week
      3. Zone number three (at or over VT2)
        • 10% to 20% of training time
        • Anaerobic endurance
        • 7 to 8 RPE
        • One or two training sessions per week
      4. Overtraining signs
        • Sleeping is disturbed
        • Resting heart rate higher than normal
        • Decreased overall hunger
        • Solution – lower the frequency and intensity. Focus more on recovery and moderate to low RPE (3-4) exercise
  • Phase number four: Anaerobic power training
    • Goals
      1. For peak power development
      2. To increase clients aerobic capacity
      3. Intervals above VT2 and RPE of 9 or more
      4. Glycolytic system overloaded fast
      5. Challenging the phosphagen system
      6. Improving the capability to work for extended sessions over the lactate threshold
    • Training Zones
      1. Zone number one (under VT1)
      2. 70% to 80%
      3. Cooldowns, Warm-ups Recovery workouts, long distances
      4. 3-4 RPE
      5. Multiple days per week
    • Zone number two (VT1-VT2)
      1. Less than 10%
      2. Aerobic efficiency
      3. 5 RPE
      4. 1 to 2 sessions per week
    • Zone number three (At or over VT2)
      1. 10% to 20%
      2. Anaerobic power
      3. 9-10 RPE
      4. 1 to 2 sessions per week
        • Near max effort intervals
        • Long recovery times with short duration

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